Winner of the New Statesman SPERI Prize in Political Economy 2016

Wednesday, 7 January 2015

Sachs and the age of diminished expectations

I do not normally talk much about the US economy, because there are so many others writing articles and posts that can do so with more authority. But I am getting increasingly fed up with people telling me that US growth disproves the idea that austerity is bad for you at the Zero Lower Bound (ZLB). Jeffrey Sachs just joins a long list.

Of course the proper way to tackle this is as Paul Krugman does. As he says other stuff happens (like a large fall in the US savings ratio in 2013), so you need to go beyond a single country and look at lots of data. However this might leave the impression that somehow the US case is unusual and does not fit a Keynesian story. In this respect I did a simple exercise, the results of which are shown in the chart. It shows actual US GDP, and a hypothetical path based on 2% real growth in government consumption and investment from 2009. So instead of austerity, we maintained government spending at the elevated levels seen at the bottom of the recession. In addition I’ve assumed quite a large (and instantaneous) multiplier of two on that extra government spending.

US GDP, billions of chained 2009 US dollars.
Now if the US recovery proved that Keynesian analysis was wrong, we should get nonsense out of an exercise of this kind. If the recovery was just fine with austerity then replacing it with something like fiscal stimulus and assuming a large multiplier should give us ridiculous rates of growth. Yet as you can see, the no-austerity GDP path looks perfectly plausible. What we get is 3.4% growth in 2010 (compared to an actual of 2.5%), followed by three years of 3.7% growth (compared to 1.6%, 2.3% and 2.2%). In other words we get a reasonably rapid recovery from a deep recession. Obviously there are more sophisticated ways of doing this kind of counterfactual, but maybe something very simple can make the point. With recent US experience, there is no case against Keynesian analysis to answer. 

This suggests to me two things. First, lots of people are desperate to show that critics of austerity at the ZLB are wrong, and are prepared to make nonsense arguments to that end. This may be particularly true if you very publicly proclaimed the need for austerity in 2010 (note the co-author: HT John McHale). Second, it is a sad day when anyone thinks that 2.3% growth is “brisk” when we are recovering from a deep recession and interest rates have remained at the ZLB. It is so very dangerous when these diminished expectations become internalised by the elite.     


160 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. I am Rebecca, i will like to let every know that there is a true and real spell caster out there and he has helped me in so many way just a few days since i came in contact with him through the help of my good friend who introduced me to him. he did a love spell for me and assured me that after 2days, my ex husband will return to me and to my greatest surprise the 2day my ex came knocking at my door begging for forgiveness. I am so happy that my love is back again. Once again thank you Dr, Shakiki, You are truly a great man wow this man has brought back the joy in my life that was stolen and now i live a better and sound life. he bring back my divorce husband home with his love spell, when i lost my husband.he is true to his word and he is here in the world to help mankind. he is the realest of all spell caster online. he is LORD Dr.Shakiki. you can get him via email: LORDSHAKIKISPELL@GMAIL.COM OR LORDSHAKIKISPELL@YAHOO.COM or you can also contact him through his website http://lordshakikispell.webs.com and i swear a trial will convince you and you will be a happy with you lover again call him +2348100399287

      Delete
    2. At last my happiness has been restored by a Man called Dr Believe ,, my name’s are Mrs Nikki Rose i want every one on this site or forum to join me thank this Dr Believe for what he just did for me and my kids . My story goes like this i was married to my husband for 5 years we were living happily together for this years and not until he traveled to Italy for a business trip where he met this prostitute who be witched him to hate me and the kids and love her only so when my husband came back from the trip he said he does not want to see me and my kids again so he drove us out of the house and he was now going to Italy to see that other woman. so i and my kids were now so frustrated and i was just staying with my mum and i was not treating good because my mama got married to another man after the death of my daddy so the man she got married to was not treating i and my kids well so i was so confuse and i was searching for a way to get my husband back to me and my kids so one day as i was browsing on my computer i saw a testimony about this MAN Dr Believe of authenticspellcast@gmail.com and authenticspellcast@yahoo.com shared on the internet by a lady and it impress me too so i also think of giving it a try at first i was scared by when i think of what me and my kids are passing through so i contact him and he told me to stay calm for just two days that my husband shall be restored to me and to my best surprise i received a call from my husband on the second day asking after the kids and i called Dr Believe and he said your problems are solved my child so this was how i get my family back after a long stress of brake up by an evil lady so with all this help from Dr Believe of authenticspellcst@gmail.com and authenticspellcast@yahoo.com i want you all on this forum to join me to say a huge thanks to Dr Believe and i will also advice for any one in such or similar problems or any kind of problems should also contact him for help you can call him on his mobile number +2349051496262

      Delete
    3. Hello my name is KARINA JANE and am from Trinidad Tobago , i am hear to give testimony of how i got back my husband, we got married for more than 9 years and have gotten two kids. thing were going well with us and we are always happy. until one day my husband started to behave in a way i could not understand, i was very confused by the way he treat me and the kids. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was mad and also frustrated do not know what to do,i was sick for more than 2 weeks because of the divorce. i love him so much he was everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told my sister and she told me to contact a spell caster called Dr Believe of authenticspellcast@yahoo.com , i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing. i just want to try if something will come out of it. i contacted for the return of my husband to me, they told me that my husband have been taken by another woman, that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want us to divorce. then they told me that they have to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and the kids, they casted the spell and after 2 days my husband called me and he told me that i should forgive him, he started to apologize on phone and said that he still love me that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that Dr Believe on him that make him comeback to me today,me and my family are now happy again today. thank you Dr believe for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. i want you my friends who are passing through all this kind of love problem of getting back their husband, wife , or ex boyfriend, ex lover and girlfriend to contact Dr Believe with this via email: authenticspellcast@yahoo.com or contact him through his website:http://authenticspellcaste.webs.com/ or call him on his mobile number +2349051496262

      Delete
    4. Hello my is DENISE SASHA i want to share my testimony on how i married for the pass 5 years without even conceiving a baby and i have done all the medical check up and the doctors said am okay yet i was still unable to conceive until one faithful day i was on the internet doing some research and i saw a testimony share by someone on how a man call Dr Believe help her to conceive a baby after casting a pregnancy spell for her and i have no option than to also contact this man on this same email which is authenticspellcast@yahoo.com and to my greatest surprise after he has cast the spell for me and he told me to have sex with my husband and i did as he instructed me and to God be the glory at the end of the month i miss my period and i want for hospital for check up again and the doctor said am two weeks pregnant and i was so surprise and all this all came through with the help of Dr Believe once again contact him authenticspellcast@yahoo.com or you can contact him through his website: http://authenticspellcaste.webs.com/ or call him through his mobile number +2349051496262 for your help because he just save my marriage and i know many of you are out there with the same problem don't hesitate to contact him now.

      Delete
    5. My name is CLIFFORD MARY from USA .I am here to give testimony on how I got my husband back. My husband left me for no reason 3 years ago. He moved in with another woman, I felt like killing myself, my life became very bitter and sorrowful. Then 1 day, a friend of mine told me about a great spell caster that is very good and, he said he gave him some lucky numbers that he played in a lottery and he won. I didn't believe it because I've worked with so many of them and it didn't work. He begged me further so I decided to try this great spell caster called DR OZIL. I still didn't believe. I used the spell he gave me and the next day I received a call from my darling husband Thomas last month. He apologized and came back to me. He even gave me 10,000USD as a means of compensating me. I'm very happy now. Thank you DR OZIL, You can reach him via email:(drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com)
      He can solve any problem like,
      (1) If you want your ex back.
      (2) you need a divorce in your relationship.
      (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
      (4) You want women & men to run after you.
      (5) If you want a child.
      (6) You want to be rich.
      (7) You want to tie your husband & wife to be yours forever.
      (8) If you need financial stance.
      (9) He can make you pregnancy.
      (10) He can cure you from any diseases.
      contact: drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com

      Delete
    6. My name is CLIFFORD MARY from USA .I am here to give testimony on how I got my husband back. My husband left me for no reason 3 years ago. He moved in with another woman, I felt like killing myself, my life became very bitter and sorrowful. Then 1 day, a friend of mine told me about a great spell caster that is very good and, he said he gave him some lucky numbers that he played in a lottery and he won. I didn't believe it because I've worked with so many of them and it didn't work. He begged me further so I decided to try this great spell caster called DR OZIL. I still didn't believe. I used the spell he gave me and the next day I received a call from my darling husband Thomas last month. He apologized and came back to me. He even gave me 10,000USD as a means of compensating me. I'm very happy now. Thank you DR OZIL, You can reach him via email:(drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com)
      He can solve any problem like,
      (1) If you want your ex back.
      (2) you need a divorce in your relationship.
      (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
      (4) You want women & men to run after you.
      (5) If you want a child.
      (6) You want to be rich.
      (7) You want to tie your husband & wife to be yours forever.
      (8) If you need financial stance.
      (9) He can make you pregnancy.
      (10) He can cure you from any diseases.
      contact: drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com

      Delete
    7. An amazing testimony on a spell caster who brought my wife back to me.. My name is GARY ,i live in United States,and I'm happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids.A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife.so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce.she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she didn't love me anymore.So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife.So i explained every thing to her,so he told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for him too.So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow his advice and i contacted DR OGUN and he told me that my wife will come back to me after 2 days and he cast the spell and sent me a package which i used after using the package my wife came back to me,telling me how much she loves me and how much she miss me,i can boldy stand for this old man any where any day and if you are outh there having this kind of problem or anything is troubling you just kindly contact him right now at LOVESPELLTEMPLEE@GMAIL.COM, THE OGUN YOU ARE THE BESTemail lovespelltemplee@gmail.com
      IF YOU ALSO NEED SOLUTION IN THE FOLLOWING PROBLEM,CONTACT HIM AS WELL.
      1) If you want your ex back.
      (2) if you always have bad dreams.
      (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
      (4) You want women/men to run after you.
      (5) If you want a child.
      (6) You want to be rich.
      (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be yours forever.
      (8) If you need financial assistance.
      (9) How you been scammed and you want to recover you lost money.

      Delete
    8. An amazing testimony on a spell caster who brought my wife back to me.. My name is GARY ,i live in United States,and I'm happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids.A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife.so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce.she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she didn't love me anymore.So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife.So i explained every thing to her,so he told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for him too.So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow his advice and i contacted DR OGUN and he told me that my wife will come back to me after 2 days and he cast the spell and sent me a package which i used after using the package my wife came back to me,telling me how much she loves me and how much she miss me,i can boldy stand for this old man any where any day and if you are outh there having this kind of problem or anything is troubling you just kindly contact him right now at LOVESPELLTEMPLEE@GMAIL.COM, THE OGUN YOU ARE THE BESTemail lovespelltemplee@gmail.com
      IF YOU ALSO NEED SOLUTION IN THE FOLLOWING PROBLEM,CONTACT HIM AS WELL.
      1) If you want your ex back.
      (2) if you always have bad dreams.
      (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
      (4) You want women/men to run after you.
      (5) If you want a child.
      (6) You want to be rich.
      (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be yours forever.
      (8) If you need financial assistance.
      (9) How you been scammed and you want to recover you lost money.

      Delete
    9. “I feel the same way as any other woman with heartbreak and What would I have done if not for DR. OSAUYI, my name is Mrs. Robin Wendy, I am 38. years old and I have a son. Unfortunately almost a year ago his father broke up with me because of a mistake I made and I just really want.him back. He is the best thing that has ever happened to me and I want.our family to be complete again, I want to spend the rest of my life with him. I read online that he helped a girl in this situation and I contacted him for help. I grew up with my parents divorced and I don't want that for my son and I miss my husband so much and just want our family to be whole again I want the love of my life back and I can honestly say that because he is the only man I have ever truly loved with all my heart. So I seek help from (Osauyilovespell@outlook.com) and he responded to me and he cast a love spell for me which I use in getting back my husband and I am happy and grateful to him for helping me and I want you all to also have the opportunity I had also, OSAUYILOVESPELL@OUTLOOK.COM is the only through help I have ever known. Good luck” you can call the great man on +2347064294395 his ready to help you with your problem

      Delete
  2. Well done! If you have not already - check out what Brad DeLong wrote on this and the various comments to his post.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Jeffrey Sachs' "advice" to post-socialist politicians was also, well, let's say "problematic." Sure, there were a host of political and structural issues to deal with. But "shock therapy" was so tone deaf as to be ridiculous. And it has given rhetorical ammunition to nationalists and real "statists" like Putin. Can we consign Sachs to the dust bin of intellectual history?

    ReplyDelete
  4. Interesting as always Prof Wren-Lewis, but just to clarify are you using a multiplier of 2 intentionally because it is unrealistically high? (because a multiplier that high in good times would mean a ridiculous growth path
    Would greatly appreciate response

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. For an instantaneous multiplier it is probably at the upper end of what I regard as plausible, but the key point is if growth looks quite reasonable with a multiplier that high, then obviously multipliers lower than this will also give reasonable results.

      Delete
    2. Forgive me but I am confused by this (I am not an economist, just an interested amateur). What would the curve look like if you had chosen a more realistic multiplier?

      Delete
    3. A slightly lower multiplier would be shown by the blue line being slightly lower than in the graph above, but still above the red line.

      Delete
    4. Thanks. Again, forgive my ignorance, but how sensitive is the outcome of this analysis to the multiplier? Or to put it another way, if you used a multiplier at the lower end of what is plausible, would it change the picture significantly?

      Delete
  5. I think this is an excellent post. It is hard to think of a new way to show that US growth has been disappointing or that the case the the US data contradict Keynes is silly. Thanks for the post.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Much appreciated. I cannot think why I did not do it earlier - I'm almost certain someone else already has and I have just missed it. Are there no US models out there where something like this has been simulated?

      Delete
  6. "But I am getting increasingly fed up with people telling me that US growth disproves the idea that austerity is bad for you at the Zero Lower Bound (ZLB)"
    Are these same people forgetting the positive impact on US GDP and jobs as a result of the 2009 Recovery Act? Or do they think that austerity was the only show in town, therefore attributing the US recovery and subsequent economic improvements between 2009-14 to it?
    http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/02/18/the-stimulus-anniversary/
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Recovery_and_Reinvestment_Act_of_2009



    http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/02/18/the-stimulus-anniversary/

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. That is a good point, Simon.

      My memory is less than perfect on the situation in America, although I do follow it from time to time, but wasn't austerity only embarked upon when the Republicans got a majority in the House of Representatives two years into Obama's first term? That was when spending was reduced by some $750 billion or some similarly large number, about two thirds of which coming from spending on the Military.

      Otherwise, which early years US austerity are you describing, S W-L?

      Delete
    2. Actual total (not just fed) government spending growth: 2009 3.1%, 2010 0.1%, 2011 -3%, 2012 -1.5%, 2013 -2%. You get a misleading picture by just looking at federal spending.

      Delete
    3. Thank you for that - I had completely ignored non-Fed Government spending, and of course that is quite important. I find the possibilities for analysis quite exciting! If I can find some reliable source of statistics I'd like to look at spending levels on a state by state basis, analyse for political control, and see if there is a pattern of politically inspired austerity here. Also by looking at the relative proportions of spending (All States v Fed, Red States v Blue States v Fed) and look to see what patterns emerge. Fascinating! :-)

      Could you please point me in the right direction for the figures?

      Delete
    4. Fifthdecade:
      The wikipedia link in my comment above has lots of data and information, and whilst I don't think there is a breakdown of blue and red state spending or stimulus favour, there is some general political information throughout the entire page, which like here in the UK with the Coalition, illustrates the incorrectness of their views, policy choices given the particular economic circumstances of the time, and not to mention their shameless hypocracy...
      "The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee established a "Hypocrisy Hall of Fame" to list Republican Representatives who had voted against ARRA but who then sought or took credit for ARRA programs in their districts. As of September 2011, the DCCC was listing 128 House Republicans in this category.
      And here's the gem:
      "Newsweek reported that many of the Republican legislators who publicly argued that the stimulus would not create jobs were writing letters seeking stimulus programs for their districts on the grounds that the spending would create jobs." You couldn't make it up!
      http://www.newsweek.com/conseratives-brought-nation-default-ask-govt-handouts-68081

      Delete
    5. Simon: Thanks, yes, the Wikipedia page has 108 footnoted links not counting the ones in the article itself. I was really trying to get at the original source of statistics that "mainly macro" Simon Wren-Lewis used to come up with his figure for "Total Government Spending" in the US - and yes, I'm probably being lazy but I'm not an economist so it would take me a lot longer to find the right information than it would you erudite folk for whom it must be rather like picking up the daily newspaper... especially since S W-L already found it...

      Delete
    6. Try using this: https://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/

      Delete
    7. Thanks. Lovely info... and interactive charts too! :-)

      Delete
  7. While I do not agree with Sachs analysis, and very much do agree with your criticisms of him in this regard, at the same time, I also agree with Sach's ultimate conclusion that the deficit should not be ignored, especially in the U.S.

    It’s clear to me (though, admittedly, not to very many others) that the increased concentration in income we have seen in the U.S. over the past 30 years has made it impossible to fully employ our resources in the absence of increasing debt relative to income. Liberals/Progressives in the U.S. argue this problem can be solved by increasing the federal deficit to fill the gap. But this means that federal debt must increase relative to income. Is this really a solution to the problem? I don’t think so.

    Who’s going to buy the increasing federal debt? Those who can afford it, that’s who. What will happen to federal interest rates and obligations as we approach full employment? They will increase. What will happen to the concentration of income as federal interest payments increase? It will increase. What will happen to the gap the government must fill in order to achieve full employment as the concentration of income increases? It will increase. How will this cycle come to an end? Badly!

    It seems to me that trying to solve the employment problem with fiscal policy while ignoring the deficit is a serious mistake. The only way to solve this problem and avoid a future crisis and dramatic disruption of our society is to reduce the concentration of income by eliminating tax loopholes and increasing tax rates on the wealthy while increasing government expenditures in a way that empowers people which, in the end, is what Sachs advocates.

    http://www.rweconomics.com/WD/Ch_0P.htm

    http://www.rweconomics.com/LTLGAD.htm

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Whatever you think about the deficit, you do not do something about it at the Zero Lower Bound.

      Delete
    2. I can't speak for the U.K., but I think we can and should do something about the way deficits have been created in the U.S. I suspect that, at least to some extent, the proceeds of the tax cuts to upper income individuals in the stimulus packages were used to purchase the government bonds that resulted from the deficits the tax cuts created. This sort of thing is not productive. I also think that the U.S. tax structure is the source of the problem here in that it fosters the increasing concentration of income that I see as the root cause of the economic problem the world faces today. It seems reasonable to me to insist that this aspect of deficit creation be faced and dealt with directly rather than just ignored as if it doesn't matter even when we are at a ZLB. .

      Delete
    3. "Whatever you think about the deficit, you do not do something about it at the Zero Lower Bound."

      The overwhelming majority of state governments are mandated by the laws of their states (typically their state constitutions) to balance their budgets. So they may not deficit spend simply because a bunch of people declare a "Zero Lower Bound" situation to exist.

      Delete
    4. Which is a serious problem, because it turns off any automatic stabilisers.

      Delete
    5. So your analysis ignores this serious problem, right? Your analysis assumes that the states increase their real spending by 2% per year, but don't increase taxes by an equal amount, to balance their budgets as required by their laws, right?

      Delete
  8. The flaw with this is that austerity wasn't spread across 2010-2013, it was concentrated in 2011-2013. The federal government line of real GDP grew 4.4% in 2010 and shrank 2,7%, 1.8% and 5.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Nominal federal current expenditures grew 7% in 2010, only 1.2% in 2011 and were nearly unchanged 2012 and 2013. Sachs' point is about the projections of doom that Keynesians made when the 2013 austerity was pending, Those weren't borne out.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Or to put it another way, to a charge that Keynesians exaggerated the expected impact of the 2013 austerity, you're essentially answering that Keynesians actually only exaggerated the scale of the austerity. Hmm, maybe.

      Delete
    2. Flaw?!? I use annual data, so where is the flaw? I also use data for total government spending, not just federal, as you should. Get your analysis right before you start talking about exaggeration. You are just making the same mistakes as Sachs did.

      Delete
    3. Okay, with all levels of government spending I can duplicate your math. The point that you’re making then is that austerity was actually most severe in 2011, when federal austerity began while state and local austerity continued, and that austerity actually got milder in 2012-2013 as the trend away from austerity at state and local levels overwhelmed the deepening of austerity at the federal level.

      Let’s recap: Sachs criticized Krugman for claiming victory for his theory, pointing out that Krugman had claimed in 2013 that US austerity had "destroyed millions of jobs" and other hyperbole, and pointing out that employment growth in fact improved during the 2013 austerity. Your counter to Sachs is somewhat indirect as you go back to 2010, but if you dig into the details of what you’re showing, the relevant point is that although 2013 federal austerity was severe, the 2013 total government austerity was actually less severe than in 2011-2012, so the 2013 growth result isn’t inconsistent with Keynesian theory.

      That’s all fair, I have no argument anymore with what you’ve written here. But you are as I see it answering Sachs by showing that Krugman's talk of crushing austerity in 2013 was wildly exaggerated.

      It’s also worth pointing out that the model you’re using here relies on the multiplier to pay for stimulus. If the multiplier turns out not to exist, you have a temporary boost to output that reverses when stimulus is withdrawn, leaving you with more debt but no more output than you would have had if the stimulus had never happened.

      Delete
    4. I'm glad you are happy with the maths. But your last paragraph seems to misunderstand the main point. Any austerity at the Zero Lower Bound wastes resources. Austerity when interest rates are not at the ZLB does not waste resources, because interest rates can be reduced to redirect those resources to private production. That is the key point that Krugman keeps on making, and Sachs ignores. Talk of exaggerated language is neither here nor there.

      Let me put it another way. Let's assume the multiplier is two. Which recovery would you have rather had: the blue line or the red line. Now debt will be higher with the blue line, but there is plenty of time to pay that off later (when interest rates have increased), with no costs to output. There is no contest. It really is such a simple point, yet apparently so difficult for some to see.

      Delete
    5. Well, what you’re doing is chiding Sachs and I for not having faith in multipliers and ISLM diagrams.

      If there is no multiplier, then the output gain of hypothetical 2013 over factual is a more modest ~$450b chained-dollar, ~$480b nominal, 2013 deficit spending is ~$1050b instead of $560b and end-2013 debt is ~$13,480 instead of $12,355b.

      And if higher public spending doesn't really make private investment more attractive by moving the natural interest rate up from the lower bound, then there is no elegant off-ramp from the deficit and accumulating debt.

      Now, obviously the US is strong and reputable enough to sustain a 6% deficit and rising debt/GDP for a long, long, long time. But if the extra public spending doesn’t help private sector growth, the day of fiscal consolidation reckoning must someday come. And when it does, you’re right back down to that red trend line, but with more debt than if you had accepted it earlier.

      I’m not arguing that letting go teachers, police and fire fighters during a recession is a swell idea. However I’m not convinced that sustaining or expanding the federal fiscal stimulus of 2009-2010 would have been helpful, or that all the defense and other federal cuts were harmful.

      My argument is that we should choose the level of public spending that makes sense for the long term and be willing to defend it in a recession. And we should beef up the part of our safety net that handles the long-term unemployed and discouraged labor force, to give such people lowish-but-living-wage trainee jobs that are aimed at bringing them into private employment. We should not fool ourselves into thinking such temporary public employees will add much value to the economy, or that their consumption will spur the economy by any more than the public pays them.

      Again, we should be willing to defend the public spending levels that we can afford in the long run. I agree that a lot of austerity is destructive. But the Keynesian ideal of ad hoc extra public investment spending during recessions neither adds value to the economy, nor does much for the displaced. It’s a myopic ivory tower proposal that just doesn’t help in the real world. All it does is provoke a political backlash, as we saw play out here very strongly in 2010-2013.

      Delete
    6. "Well, what you’re doing is chiding Sachs and I for not having faith in multipliers and ISLM diagrams."

      You've missed the point of the blog post I think. SWL is not making the case for the existence of multipliers. He is defending his model from a specific criticism.

      Sachs said US growth shows austerity was not harmful and therefore Keynesians are wrong. SWL is countering that some growth is not inconsistent with the idea that resources were wasted anyway. The graph is intended to show that a substantial multiplier does not result in ridiculous growth predictions, therefore the real amount of growth is consistent with the Keynesian view that austerity led to a recovery that was slower than necessary for no reason (ie resources were wasted).

      Delete
    7. The comment of mine that you quoted responds to Simon's comment beginning, "I'm glad you are happy with ...," not to the argument in the main article. I accept the article's argument that recent economic performance doesn't disprove Keynesian theory, as I wrote earlier in my comment beginning, "Okay, with all levels of government spending ..."

      Delete
  9. "In a highly influential paper, Eichengreen and Sachs (1985) examined a number of key macro variables for ten major countries over 1929-35, finding that countries that left gold earlier also recovered earlier."

    From Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke at the Conference to Honor Milton Friedman, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois November 8, 2002.

    How united it all seemed back then.

    ReplyDelete
  10. I don't understand. To me G can increase from Taxes or borrowing. If that borrowing is met by domestic sources, would not both cases be "at least some, if not all" offset in C? If C has the same multiplier as G, wouldn't we be right back to the red line? If not, why stop at growing G at 2%, we might as well go for 20-30% and turn the blue line completely vertical.

    If I am saying something completely stupid. Feel free to go into your best Alan Ford 'Brick Top' impression on me.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You have rediscovered Says Law, which is obviously wrong once you allow savings to be partly held in the form of money. Best read a simple text on macro, like Tim Harford's new book.

      Delete
    2. I thought I was just arguing what I saw later in the day was Mr. DeLongs 'counter-factual'
      Entertainingly his math is 'technically' correct but his data, (the scatter graph) in the form he uses it, is completely off. I'd explain but I have a textbook to read,and I'm sure you can see the mistake yourself. It's like a flashing neon sign...

      http://delong.typepad.com/sdj/2015/01/over-at-equitable-growth-yes-the-past-four-years-are-powerful-evidence-for-the-keynesian-view-of-what-happens-at-the-zero-l.html

      Delete
  11. One of the basic things the General Theory says is that you reduce expenditure and worry about budget deficits during the boom, not during a recession.

    Unfortunately, this is what happens when you contaminate the GT with inter-temporal economics. A myth has gone round which says the GT has no reference to permanent income. That's rubbish, and some alert people have even shown where Keyes explains why we should focus on current income in your blog (if you're reading this, put that back up).

    Sachs is very much the quintessential Great Moderation New Keynesian. He has got a lot to defend, including the disastrous privatisation policies he advised for Russia following the collapse of communism (even if now is work is more enlightened).

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Absolute nonsense. New Keynesian theory says ZLB a real problem and fiscal policy is needed to solve it. Stop trying to pretend that mainstream theory is all evil.

      Delete
    2. And of course we do not have infinite horizons at the zero lower bound and we do not have to worry about Ricardian Equivalence at all.

      Delete
    3. Keynesian explanation:

      Expansionary fiscal policy is appropriate in a recession because of weak private sector demand and lending, even with low interest rates, due to deflationary psychology that arises from irrational (not rational) behaviour.

      Simple, persuasive, almost impossible to reject with empirical evidence.

      I wonder how this done in a New Keynesian framework which must include sticky prices and rational expectations (infinite horizons or forward looking agents or an assumption that some people will save the extra income)?

      Delete
  12. Simon provides a graph and concludes that IF government spending had increased by 2% then GDP would have been higher. Duh! Of course GDP would have been higher! But so would have been the debt level.

    Higher government spending can stimulate growth. Does anyone doubt that? But what does the implied increased debt level do to the economy long term? Do Keynsians believe that debt levels should be ignored? Are there no limits?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The national debt is just the private and foreign sectors savings. There may be limits to sensible deficit levels, if they cause large amounts of inflation but not 'debt' levels. Japan has debt at what, 200% of GDP.
      The increased spending probably benefits the economy in the long term e.g flood defense spending and infrastructure spending can lead to long term benefits to the community, and potential GDP increases as instead of letting output be wasted and all the social costs of unemployment are less, due to less unemployment.

      Delete
    2. "There may be limits to sensible deficit levels, if they cause large amounts of inflation but not 'debt' levels. Japan has debt at what, 200% of GDP."

      And they've had great economic growth:

      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Real_GDP_growth_rate_in_Japan_(1956-2008).png

      Delete
  13. What was the trend rate of growth in government spending before 2009? I'm guessing it was 5-6% per year. 2% is hardly aggressive. What GDP growth does your model imply with continuing the trend in spend?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Trend growth in real government spending 1997 to 2007 less than 2.5%.

      Delete
    2. Why use real spending? Isn't the multiplier a nominal concept?

      Delete
    3. Also, transfer payments are debatable, but you should clearly include taxes in the calculation.

      Delete
    4. That is also debatable (because of Ricardian Equivalence), but it makes no difference. If you use the underlying primary balance, which includes everything, austerity started in 2011.

      Delete
    5. And the impact on your calculations would be...?

      Delete
    6. I'll take it from your non-response that you either think I asked a really stupid question, or that answering would reveal your argument as poor. Ok then.

      Delete
    7. It would help if I knew what your question was.

      Delete
    8. I'd be happy if you answered any of the three, but I was specifically referring to "And the impact on your calculations would be...?" If you could also answer why use real, and confirm that multipliers are a nominal concept, that would be great.

      Delete
    9. I knew that was the question, but calculations of what? I suggest you look up a textbook to answer your multiplier Q.

      Delete
    10. The multiple Q was more of a rhetorical question, I know it's a nominal concept.
      So, to be more clear, how would normalizing the path of government spending and taxes over the period impact counterfactual either nominal or real GDP growth over the period, similar to how you calculated it in the post?

      Delete
  14. Referring to your last paragraph, another who publicly proclaimed the need for austerity in 2010, but using Reinhart & Rogoff's 90% debt fiscal cliff study as the key justification was of course George Osborne.
    Now given their boasts surrounding their "Long-term economic plan" which they say they have stuck to (although they didn't) , it makes one wonder why the Conservative party has in fact deleted George Osborne's speech from their website. The very speech which sets out the need for and justifies (using R&R) the proposed "Long-term economic plan" which they presently celebrate (G.O referes to it as "A New Economic Model").
    If you try the official link a very different web-page is produced!: www.conservatives.com/News/Speeches/2010/02/George_Osborne_Mais_Lecture_-_A_New_Economic_Model.aspx

    Fortunately, the Conservatives are not in control of the entire internet and cannot censure this 'smoking gun' speech, as it may be marvelled at in full here:
    http://www.totalpolitics.com/print/speeches/35193/george-osborne-mais-lecture-a-new-economic-model.thtml
    It really does make for insteresting reading, though in a Victorian freak-show kind of a way.

    ReplyDelete
  15. The real myth remains, as ever, that monetary policy is ineffective at the ZLB.

    The question, once again, ignored by S W-L is how did the US recover at all given the ZLB and the austerity?

    Monetary policy. QE. Forward guidance. Patience. Etc, etc.

    It's easy to argue it could have been better, hard for Keynesians to explain why it happened at all. And very hard when leading ones like PK predicted in 2013 it wouldn't happen.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. PK did no such thing. He argued that the stimulus was too small and would lead to a shallow recovery, as it has. He has said this so many times, you are either intentionally trying to mislead or simply haven't actually read him

      Delete
    2. Oh good grief! We got a recovery in the US because interest rates were at the ZLB!! We got a lukewarm recovery because interest rates could not be reduced below zero, and because of austerity. What part of this do you find so difficult to understand.

      Delete
    3. "What part of this do you find so difficult to understand."
      The bits that involve economics, historical accuracy and not misrepresenting people it appears.
      As well as Anon's and SWL's responses above, I made a comment regarding the US recovery questioning those who (deliberately) ignore another significant factor involved, together with appropriate links 2 days ago:

      Simon7 January 2015 at 13:53

      "But I am getting increasingly fed up with people telling me that US growth disproves the idea that austerity is bad for you at the Zero Lower Bound (ZLB)"
      Are these same people forgetting the positive impact on US GDP and jobs as a result of the 2009 Recovery Act? Or do they think that austerity was the only show in town, therefore attributing the US recovery and subsequent economic improvements between 2009-14 to it?
      http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/02/18/the-stimulus-anniversary/
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Recovery_and_Reinvestment_Act_of_2009

      Delete
    4. Sorry about the comment below! I missed the reply here. At least now we are talking.

      You clearly still believe the level of interest rates is the only thing that counts as monetary policy. So what do you think QE and Guidance and Patience and etc are about then?

      And believe they have had no impact on the recovery?

      You say Market Monetarists are not model driven enough, but if everyone incessantly talks about these things, in markets and in the general economy how can they not have an impact? Do you read the papers?

      Delete
    5. "You clearly still believe the level of interest rates is the only thing that counts as monetary policy."

      No, I have never said that. But what I have said, and it is blindingly obvious, is that QE is a very uncertain instrument. So it is clearly inferior to fiscal policy as a way of ensuring a good recovery. Why do you try and avoid this point?

      Delete
  16. Read the last paragraph and then tell me what you think. And tell me what S W-L thinks too. He says exactly the same thing. It's the elephant in the room for Keynesians.
    http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/04/28/monetarism-falls-short-somewhat-wonkish/?_r=0

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Elephant in the room?!? We follow mainstream macro in suggesting that monetary policy has a ZLB problem. QE cannot make up for that, as I've argued many times (and no one, just no one, has refuted that argument). So why this ZLB denial? I really do not understand it.

      Delete
    2. If policy follows consensus, then mainstream macro must support Inflation Targeting, as it is the incumbent policy. Keynseians and Market Monetarists are both non-mainstream, non-consensus, and argue IT is not optimal.

      Keynesians are in denial about the transparent, obvious, effectiveness of monetary policy at the ZLB even with the constraint of IT. I do not understand your monetary policy denial.

      Market Monetarists have also called PK (and you) out on the US recovery. it's not great, it's not optimal, but it is a fact. Throwing a few stones saying it could be better is really rather missing the point.

      Delete
    3. I'm glad you agree the recovery is not great or optimal. Why - because of austerity. And who has been supporting austerity by taking every opportunity to attack the things that Paul Krugman and I have been saying. Market Monetarists!

      Delete
    4. You suggest Market Monetarists don't understand Keynesianism but one thing they haven't advocated is austerity. They are largely neutral about that. They have actively criticised austerians, especially when combined with tigher monetary policy, as in Europe.

      They advocate NGDPLT, NGDP futures targeting, full stop. They see unconventional monetary policy as, well, monetary policy, just like it says on the tin. Not optimal, but still monetary policy.

      They are not monetary policy deniers at the ZLB. You and a few others are strange in not wanting to see this. Frankly, I don't understand why: a spade is still a spade even if it is a bl00dy shovel.

      Delete
    5. Oh come on. Many of the people that MMs attack, like myself, support NGDP targeting. But, as Tony Yates noted (who has no skin in this game), it is part of being a MM that you attack the idea of using fiscal policy at the ZLB. If you are against fiscal stimulus, you must think its opposite - austerity - does not matter.

      Delete
    6. I think supporting NGDP targeting as an "insurance policy" at the ZLB is a bit of a cop out. The MM critique is more deep-rooted than that. But thank you all the same. Your presentation to the MPC back in 2013 was very interesting, and in the long term, helpful.

      I do think fiscal stimulus is helpful in some cases, where it targets jobs, like cutting employers NI, as it will help the supply side. But it may still get offset by Inflation Targeting central banks. More's the shame. I think you also noted an almost positive aspect of US austerity being not so bad as the UK one, as being more tax cut focused.

      We are now seeing austerity being much more than offset by the half-hearted (unconventional) monetary policy at the ZLB. Think how much it could have been offset, and more quickly, by proper NGDP Forecast Targeting monetary policy.

      Or we might not even have had the GFC at all if the monetary authorities had been a machine, only looking at NGDP Forecasts, rather than headline inflation or moral hazard.

      Austerity and tight monetary policy is insane. But even then, as in Spain and Ireland, eventually it seems to be overcome - even if at huge cost.

      Delete
  17. There is a point in Sachs' article worth taking on board, though. He said "I believe that we do need more government spending as a share of GDP – for education, infrastructure, low-carbon energy, research and development, and family benefits for low-income families. But we should pay for this through higher taxes on high incomes and high net worth, a carbon tax, and future tolls collected on new infrastructure." Leaving aside the "we should pay for this through" part, it seems generally a valid point. There is austerity and there's austerity. Austerity through making the poor and middle classes pay more is one thing. Austerity through making the rich pay more is another, better thing, not just from an equity perspective but also from a demand perspective. And given the enormous idle corporate corporate cash piles, and the fact that they are very substantially owned by foreigners, corporations should pay higher taxes. Corporate tax cuts in the current environment are the equivalent of pushing on a string.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. But I think Krugman would agree with this, and has written similar things many times. So why does Sachs keep choosing to side with those advocating austerity, rather than Krugman?

      Delete
    2. well, indeed: it's a good question. But has Krugman written about the idle corporate cash piles / tax cuts pushing on a string point? I haven't seen it, but I may have missed it.

      Delete
  18. Nick, a few links from Krugman on the subject.

    http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/08/12/soylent-green-is-corporations/
    http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/19/corporate-taxes-and-the-01-percent/
    http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/20/more-about-corporate-taxes-and-the-01-percent/

    ReplyDelete
  19. Andreas, many thanks - and these links are actually useful for some of the other stuff that I'm doing on tax incidence. But actually they don't address the point I was trying to make. Which is that corporations are sitting on big cash piles. Corporate taxes transfer money from idle corporate cash (yes, one needs the tax incidence arguments here, but that's just a part of it) to government, which is mandated to put it straight to work building roads and paying teachers and judges and road workers and so on. So corporate tax cuts, which is what the current UK government is pursuing, hell for leather, are pushing on a string: exactly the worst kind of austerity. Martin Wolf has alluded to this argument, as have a few others, but I haven't seen any mainstream work laying this out. The UK corporate tax roadmap seems insane, from where I'm sitting.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Nick, I appreciate that, it's the best I could find in short order. On the rest of what you discussed I think you are in a way referring fiscal multipliers, the idea that the amount of economic activity generated by fiscal adjustment differs from the size of that fiscal adjustment (in the short term at least). Duncan Weldon did a post ages back which included some estimates from various sources, this did have low multipliers (less than 1) for things like corporate taxes (the size of the corporate cash pile seems like good supporting evidence for this).

      SWL also did a post a while back on the idea of a balanced budget multiplier, the idea of expanding demand by using a temporary tax rise (with a low multiplier) to finance government spending (with a higher multiplier). THis is I suppose essentially the opposite of the governments spending cuts & tax cuts policies.

      https://duncanseconomicblog.wordpress.com/2010/08/02/some-thoughts-on-fiscal-policy/
      http://mainlymacro.blogspot.co.uk/2012/07/the-macroeconomic-magic-button.html

      Delete
  20. sorry, i didn't mean 'worst kind of austerity', i meant wrong direction

    ReplyDelete
  21. Prof Wren-Lewis,

    1) Do you believe that a central bank can effectively target inflation at the ZLB?

    2) If we assume that the central bank can effectively target inflation at the ZLB, isn't it true that fiscal policy won't affect job growth?

    3) Given the Fed's (and other central banks') strategy of engaging in, and withdrawing from, QE based on inflation and unemployment data, and given the dramatic market reactions to unexpected announcements in QE policy (i.e. the "taper tantrum" of May 2013), isn't it reasonable to conclude that the Fed is indeed targeting inflation right now?

    4) Therefore, isn't it reasonable to conclude that expansionary monetary policy is both *necessary* and *sufficient* to accelerate the pace of recovery?

    Now I'm not saying that the above is certainly true, but isn't it at least reasonable to hold those views?

    would love to hear your response, thanks!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The answer to (1) is simply no. (2) is true, but is irrelevant given (1). To answer (3) and (4), you simply have to observe that the recovery has been slow, and inflation has been below target. That could mean (a) the inflation target is really below 2% (and the dual mandate does not matter), or (b) the central bank is incompetent, or (c) that the Fed did all it could with the tools it has with an inflation target framework, but because of the ZLB that was not enough. I think (c) is correct. Bernanke came close to saying that when he talked about fiscal policy.

      Delete
    2. I just think that the weight of the evidence is against (c), because, as I mentioned above, the market reacts strongly to unexpected Fed announcements concerning QE and forward guidance.

      And the idea that a central bank of a country with fiat money *can't* generate inflation is just implausible. It's akin to the idea that Japan *couldn't* depreciate it's currency in 1999. Here's Ben Bernanke's takedown of that that idea in his famous paper on Japanese monetary policy:

      "To rebut this view, one can apply a reductio ad absurdum argument, based on my earlier observation that money issuance must affect prices, else printing money will create infinite purchasing power. Suppose the Bank of Japan prints yen and uses them to acquire foreign assets. If the yen did not depreciate as a result, and if there were no reciprocal demand for Japanese goods or assets (which would drive up domestic prices), what in principle would prevent the
      BOJ from acquiring infinite quantities of foreign assets, leaving foreigners nothing to hold but idle yen balances? Obviously this will not happen in equilibrium. One reason it will not happen is the principle of portfolio balance: Because yen balances are not perfect substitutes for all other types of real and financial assets, foreigners will not greatly increase their holdings of yen unless the
      yen depreciates, increasing the expected return on yen assets. It might be objected that the necessary interventions would be large. Although I doubt it, they might be; that is an empirical question. However, the larger the intervention that is required, the greater the associated increase in the BOJ’s foreign reserves, which doesn’t seem such a bad outcome.

      In short, there is a strong presumption that vigorous intervention by the BOJ, together with appropriate announcements to influence market expectations, could drive down the value of the yen significantly. Further, there seems little reason not to try this strategy. The “worst” that could happen would be that the BOJ would greatly increase its holdings of reserve assets."

      The exact same logic applies to QE. If it doesn't work, the "worst" that could happen is that the Fed would hold a giant portfolio of (income-generating!) mortgaged-backed securities and remit those payments to the treasury.

      Delete
    3. But what you are arguing here is that it might be possible, using QE, to eventually influence some prices by enough to get you back to the inflation target. But you have no idea what that would take. Neither does a central bank. And being a central bank, they tend to be cautious. Which means they apply inadequate stimulus, and undershoot the target.

      Its a simple example of control theory. If you have a predictable way to influence activity and prices (fiscal policy) you use that first, rather than unpredictable QE

      Delete
    4. I think your argument proves far too much. Why do we regard QE as so much less predictable than interest rates? Is there some function out there that explains the degree to which a rate hike or a rate cut affects unemployment and prices? Clearly not. So by your logic, cautious central banks won't ever hit their inflation targets because they will always err on the side of caution, so fiscal stimulus should *always* be the first resort.

      The only reason that we think of interest rate policy as a "conventional tool" during periods of above-zero interest rates is that if a cut of rate X fails to generate the desired stimulus, you can always cut rates by X+1. Bernanke's point, which you have not rebutted, is that the exact same principle applies to forex purchases, and, by extension, to QE.

      The other factor which you haven't mentioned is the many statements that Fed officials have made in which they treat 2% as a ceiling rather than a target. For example, here http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-VN2Flpy0oJU/UyCAUXrS9dI/AAAAAAAAG0o/mbyot7GXIM4/s1600/currentyearfor.png you can see that the Fed's internal forecasts, for years, predicted inflation below 2%.

      If you forecast that you're going to miss your target, and you fail to take any action that would cause you to achieve your target, then it's not a target, it's a ceiling.

      And, to go back to your three explanations you gave earlier, if (a) or (b) is actually true, then fiscal stimulus won't work.

      Delete
    5. And thank you for your responses!

      Delete
    6. "Why do we regard QE as so much less predictable than interest rates?" Because we have years of experience of using interest rates in influencing the economy, and virtually nothing on QE. But what I do not understand is why MM is so desperate to argue otherwise. What is so wrong with using fiscal policy? It is almost as if MM has a phobia about it.

      Delete
    7. MMs don't like fiscal policy because they believe that the dysfunction/incompetence of the central bank will render it moot. And, unlike QE, if fiscal policy doesn't work, the consequences are severe, and you end up like Japan, with lost decades AND bridges to nowhere AND crushing debt levels.

      Delete
    8. Simon, you're just wrong here. Sumner advocated Canada using fiscal stimulus in 2012, for some unique reasons.

      http://www.themoneyillusion.com/?p=14691

      Also, he favors supply-side fiscal stimulus for the US, including an employer-side payroll tax cut, which Christina Romer also supports.

      Delete
  22. Of course, the answer was (b) in 2008, when NGDP collapsed so calamitously. There can be only one answer.

    (c) is a variant on (b), they should drop the inflation target and stop hampering monetary policy.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Okay, so you assume a large multiplier. I don't. Now what? And it's supposed to be significant that assuming a large multiplier doesn't do crazy things with the growth numbers? This makes no sense.

    It's not that there is no case against Keynesian analysis to consider. It's that there's no evidence fiscal stimulus was needed at all. Fiscal stimulus can work, in principle, as long as an inflation hawkish central bank will not offset it.

    ReplyDelete
  24. My name faith i want to give thanks and i will always give thanks to Dr ogboni who brought back my love that has left me for 6years within 48hours, i have said about this last week but i promised to always tell people about this every week end so that those that did not read about it last will read about it this week, i have been looking for how to get this boy back to my life because i love this boy with the whole of my heart, i could not replace him with any body,one day i was watching my television when i saw a lady giving thanks to Dr igbalu and telling the world how he helped her i was so shocked i could not believe it because i never taught that there are powers that can bring back lost love, then that was how i decided to contact him too because i do really need my love back,when i contacted him i told him everything and he told me not to worry that my love will surely be back to my arms within 48hours at first i could not believe because i was thinking how could somebody that has gone for 6years come back within 48 hours,so then i decided to watch and see,unbelievable within the next 48hours i got a call from unknown number so i decided to pick the call the next thing i could hear was my loves voice he was pleading and begging me on the phone that i should forgive him that i should forget all that have happened that he did not know what came over him,he promised not to leave for any reason, that he was really sorry for what he did,i was so surprised because i never believed that this could happen,so that was how i accepted his apology and the next morning he came to my house and still pleading for me to forgive him i told him that everything is okay that i have forgiven him, that was how we started again and now we are married, i promised to say this testimony in radio station, commenting this testimony is still okay but before this month runs out i promise to say this in radio station and i will,sir thank you very much.World please am begging you people to try and thank this man for me,or if you need his help here is his email address:ogbonispelitemple@hotmail.com , you can still contact me through my email to know more about him.this is my email adress:ogbonispelitemple@hotmail.com.

    Name:faith

    Country USA

    ReplyDelete
  25. Unimaginable and unbelievable. I am Tracy Jones from the United States and i have a good news to share to the entire world. Do you need your ex husband or lover urgently? I wanna tell you that you need not to worry because i have a good news for those out there that are faced or similar to such situation because there is always a hope and a solution to all problem. There is a great spell caster called Dr Eku who can really solve your problem. Getting my lover back is what i can't imagine but when I was losing Newton, I needed help and somewhere to turn badly but my Aunty told me about this spell caster who also helped her on the internet. I thought it won't work but i just tried to give this man a chance and i ordered a LOVE SPELL. Two days later, my phone rang. Newton was his old self again and wanted to come back to me! Not only come back, the spell caster opened him up to know how much I loved and needed him. This Spell Casting isn’t brainwashing, but he opened up his eyes to know how much we have to share together. I recommend anyone who is in my old situation to try him because he will help you and make things be the way it ought to be. If you have such problem or similar to this, please contact him on his email
    drekuperfectspells@yahoo.com and just visit DREKUPERFECTSPELLS.blogspot.com and see so many people testifying about his perfect work. thank you Dr Eku and may your gods ever reward you for your good deeds..

    ReplyDelete
  26. How i got my husband back.Am Stacey Bruno by name I never believed in love spells or magic until I met this spell caster once when i went to see my friend in Indian this year on a business summit. I meant a man who's name is Dr ATILA he is really powerful and could help cast spells to bring back one's gone, lost, misbehaving lover and magic money spell or spell for a good job or luck spell .I'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 5 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down cos our relationship has been on for 3years. I really loved him, but his mother was against us and he had no good paying job. So when i met this spell caster, i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him. At first i was undecided,skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try. And in 7 days when i returned to Canada, my boyfriend (now husband) called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mom and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married. I didn't believe it cos the Dr ATILA only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. Well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got the new job and our lives became much better. His email is: atilahealinghome@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  27. Unimaginable and unbelievable. I am Tracy Jones from the United States and i have a good news to share to the entire world. Do you need your ex husband or lover urgently? I wanna tell you that you need not to worry because i have a good news for those out there that are faced or similar to such situation because there is always a hope and a solution to all problem. There is a great spell caster called Dr Eku who can really solve your problem. Getting my lover back is what i can't imagine but when I was losing Newton, I needed help and somewhere to turn badly but my Aunty told me about this spell caster who also helped her on the internet. I thought it won't work but i just tried to give this man a chance and i ordered a LOVE SPELL. Two days later, my phone rang. Newton was his old self again and wanted to come back to me! Not only come back, the spell caster opened him up to know how much I loved and needed him. This Spell Casting isn’t brainwashing, but he opened up his eyes to know how much we have to share together. I recommend anyone who is in my old situation to try him because he will help you and make things be the way it ought to be. If you have such problem or similar to this, please contact him on his email
    drekuperfectspells@yahoo.com and just visit DREKUPERFECTSPELLS.blogspot.com and see so many people testifying about his perfect work. thank you Dr Eku and may your gods ever reward you for your good deeds..

    ReplyDelete
  28. today, I want to use this opportunity to tell everyone about Dr agbalazzy of Olorunoduduwaspiritualtemple@gmail.com, on how he help me reunited with my husband after 2 months of divorce.My husband divorce me because he saw another woman in his office and he said to me that he is no longer in love with me anymore and decide to divorce me.I seek help from the Net and i saw good talk about Dr agbalazzy and i contact him and explain my problem to him and he cast a spell for me which i use to get my husband back within 2 days.am totally happy because there is no repacurtions and side-effect. If you need his help Email him at Olorunoduduwaspiritualtemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  29. Life is good when you have your love ones around you, I am saying this because when i had issues with my lover i never seen life as a good thing but thanks to Dr. AGBAGIE of AGBAGIE TEMPLE, for helping me to cast a spell that brought my lover back to me within the space of 48hours. My husband left me for another woman after 7YEARS of marriage,but Dr.AGBAGIE help me cast a spell that brought him back to me within 48hours. I am not going to tell you more details about myself rather i will only advise those who are having issues in there relationship or marriages to contact Dr.AGBAGIE TEMPLE through these details via;
    (agbagietemple@gmail.com) or call him on (+2348052849204).

    ReplyDelete
  30. I am Rebecca, i will like to let every know that there is a true and real spell caster out there and he has helped me in so many way just a few days since i came in contact with him through the help of my good friend who introduced me to him. he did a love spell for me and assured me that after 2days, my ex husband will return to me and to my greatest surprise the 2day my ex came knocking at my door begging for forgiveness. I am so happy that my love is back again. Once again thank you Dr, Shakiki, You are truly a great man wow this man has brought back the joy in my life that was stolen and now i live a better and sound life. he bring back my divorce husband home with his love spell, when i lost my husband.he is true to his word and he is here in the world to help mankind. he is the realest of all spell caster online. he is LORD Dr.Shakiki. you can get him via email: LORDSHAKIKISPELL@GMAIL.COM OR LORDSHAKIKISPELL@YAHOO.COM or you can also contact him through his website http://lordshakikispell.webs.com and i swear a trial will convince you and you will be a happy with you lover again call him +2348100399287

    ReplyDelete
  31. After being in relationship with him for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that never believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I mailed the spell caster, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: drehijelespellhome@gmail.com you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CAN NEVER STOP TALKING ABOUT YOU SIR HIS EMAIL
    ADDRESS IS:drehijelespellspellhome@gmail.com CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEM

    ReplyDelete
  32. My name is Taylor George from Canada,after being in relationship with a guy for seven years,he broke up with me,I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain,I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him,I begged him with everything,I made promises but he refused.I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don't believed in spell,I had no choice than to try it,I meant a spell caster called Dr KUME and I email him,and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days,that my ex will return to me before three days,he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day,it was around 4pm. My ex called me,I was so surprised,I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much.I was so happy and went to him,that was how we started living together happily again.Since then,I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem,I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there.Anybody could need the help of the spell caster,his email: kemespelltemple@gmail.com You can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything.CAN NEVER STOP TALKING ABOUT YOU SIR.Contact him now for solution to all your problems


    ReplyDelete
  33. I'm Linda Harry,am from Chicago,i want to share a live testimony on how Dr IDESHI was able to bring my husband back to me, myself and my husband were on a serious breakup, even before then we were always quarreling fighting.I was going crazy when my Husband left me for another girl last month, But when i meet a friend that introduce me to DR IDESHI the great messenger to the oracle that he serve,I narrated my problem to DR IDESHI about how my husband left me and also how i needed to get a job in a very big company.He only said to me that i have come to the right place were i will be getting my heart desire without any side effect.He told me what i need to do,After it was been done,In the next 24 hours,My Husbnd called me on the phone and was saying sorry for living me before now and also in the next one week after my Husband called me to be pleading for forgiveness,I was called for an interview in my desired company were i needed to work as the managing director..I am so happy and overwhelmed that i have to tell this to the entire world to contact:ideshispelltemple@outlook.com I have no idea what I would have done without you being there to help me out.thank you father for job well done in my life you can also reach him via email address:ideshispelltemple@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  34. My name is MARY from USA .I am here to give a testimony on how I got my ex boyfriend back. My ex left me for no reason 3 years ago. He moved in with another woman, I felt like killing myself, my life became very bitter and sorrowful. Then 1 day, a friend of mine told me about a great spell caster that is very good to help my problem and, my friend also said that the spell caster gave him some lucky numbers that he played in a lottery and he won. I didn't believe it because I've worked with so many of them and it didn't work. He begged me further so I decided to try this great spell caster called DR SALOBA. I still didn't believe. but I used the spell he gave me and the next day I received a call from my darling boyfriend Thomas last week. He apologized and came back to me. He even gave me 10,000USD as a means of compensating me. I'm very happy now. Thank you DR SALOBA, You can reach DR SALOBA ON via email: salobaspiritualtemple@gmail.com OR you can call my DR SALOBA on +2349036493771. He can solve any problem like,
    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) you need a divorce in your relationship.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women & men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband & wife to be yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial stance.
    (9) He can make you pregnancy.
    (10) He can cure you from any diseases.
    contact: salobaspiritualtemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  35. !!! I Sarah Post This Testimony Coz My Husband Is Back Thanks To Dr. oyinbo

    My name is Sarah am from Texas, am a woman who love and cherish my husband more than any other thing you can imagine on earth continent. My husband was so lovely and caring after 3years of marriage he was seriously ill and the doctor confirm and said he has a kidney infection that he needed a kidney donor, that was how I start searching for a good Samaritan who can help,doctor has given me a periodic hour that he will live just 26hours left, that was how I ask the doctor if I can be of help to my husband that was how he carried out the text,the confirming was successful, I was now having this taught that since 3 years now we got married I have not be able to get pregnant can I be able to get bring again? That was the question I ask the doctor, he never answer his response was did you want to lost your husband? I immediately reply no I can't afford to loose him. After the operation my husband came back to live and was healthy I was also ok with the instruction given to me by the doctor, after 3months my husband came home with another lady telling me, that is our new wife that will give us kids and take care of us, that was how I was confused and started crying all day, that was how my husband ran away with his new wife cluaralle. Since then I was confuse don't no what to do that was how I went back to the doctor and tell him everything, he told me that, this is not just an ordinary it must be a spiritual problem that was how he gave me this email (prophetoyinbojesus@yahoo.com) that I should tell her all my problem that she can help that was how i contacted her and I do as instructed. After 3days and I have done what she ask me to do, my husband start searching for me and went back to the doctor, that was how we well settle she also told me not to worry that I will get pregnant, this month making it the fifth Month I contacted her am now 3months pregnant. These great spell cater is a great man, if you are any kind of problem you can contact him here on his email (prophetoyinbojesus@yahoo.com) website address:

    ReplyDelete
  36. After wasting a lot of time in trying other means to get my lover back, i decided to give this powerful spell caster called dr okhiria an opportunity to see if he will be able to bring my lover back to me.. I blamed myself at the end of the whole things for ever doubting the powers of dr okhiria because through the help of dr okhiria my lover came back to me within the time period of 48 hours which to me was so shocking because i never thought that dr okhiria was going to be able to bring my lover back. I wish all those having problems in their relationships or marriage a success as they contact dr okhiria through his email:
    drokhiriasolutionhome@gmail.com because i believe that dr okhiria is capable to rescue and restore their relationship with love and romance.

    ReplyDelete
  37. After wasting a lot of time in trying other means to get my lover back, i decided to give this powerful spell caster called dr okhiria an opportunity to see if he will be able to bring my lover back to me.. I blamed myself at the end of the whole things for ever doubting the powers of dr okhiria because through the help of dr okhiria my lover came back to me within the time period of 48 hours which to me was so shocking because i never thought that dr okhiria was going to be able to bring my lover back. I wish all those having problems in their relationships or marriage a success as they contact dr okhiria through his email:
    drokhiriasolutionhome@gmail.com because i believe that dr okhiria is capable to rescue and restore their relationship with love and romance.

    ReplyDelete
  38. I am Kiran geoge , from USA, I promise to share this testimony all over the world once my boyfriend return back to me, and today with all due respect i want to thank DR PAUL for bringing joy and happiness to my relationship and my family. I want to inform you all that there is a spell caster that is real and genuine. I never believed in any of these things until i loosed my boyfriend, I required help until i found a grate spell caster, And he cast a love spell for me, and he assured me that I will get my boyfriend back in two days after the spell has been cast. Three days later, my phone rang, and so shockingly, it was my boyfriend who has not called me for past 6 years now, and made an apology for the heart break, and told me that he is ready to be my back bone till the rest of his life with me. DR PAUL released him up to know how much i loved and wanted him. And opened his eyes to picture how much we have share together. As I`m writing this testimony right now I`m the most happiest girl on earth and me and my boyfriend is living a happy life and our love is now stronger than how it were even before our break up. So that`s why I promised to share my testimony all over the universe. All thanks goes to DR PAUL for the excessive work that he has done for me. Below is the email address in any situation you are undergoing a heart break, and I assure you that as he has done mine for me, he will definitely help you too. salvationlovespell@gmail.com that is his email address

    ReplyDelete
  39. After being in relationship with him for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that never believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I mailed the spell caster, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster of LOTTO SPELLS, Lottery Spell, jackpot win on either a scratch off ticket, ex lover back, MONEY VOODOO SPELLS CONTACT DR akugbe all your pains will be over today on his email drakugbeapellhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  40. Hello am Susan M Rodriguez from Canada, i want to use this opportunity to share this GREAT and AWESOME TESTIMONY to the whole world to see that there is a GREAT spell caster
    called Dr Godfather who help me bring back my husband back to me without any delay, my husband left me for the past six years and my life was incomplete without him but i kept on believing that some day he will come home,so on one faithful day when i was searching through the internet and i came across his Aids were Mandy
    was shearing her testimony on how he helped her get his husband back to his kids so i read it and i was convinced that he is really a GREAT spell caster
    so i decided to sent an Email to Mandy first to confirm how Dr Godfather help her and she told me all what Dr Godfather told her to do and it was really Okay
    because Dr godfather did not ask much he only ask for what he is going to use to cast the spell and that was all so when Mandy told me all, i decided to
    contact Dr Godfather and to my GREATEST surprise when i sent an email to him and told him to help me bring back my husband back to me without any delay he told me everything about
    my husband that i did not know, all the names of some Ladies my husband has been sleeping with an even Three of my friends indeed Dr Godfather is above Trust so he told me what to do and
    i did it without wasting time and he proceeded and that very day i contacted him i did what exactly what he told me to do then the next day he proceeded and cast the
    spell and to my greatest surprise my husband that i don't even think he has my number for years called me immediately Dr godfather was done with the spell cast and believe me before
    Dr Godfather called me and told me that he is done with the spell cast, i was the one even telling him that my husband already called and was pleading me and crying on cell phone
    that i should forgive him and accept him back and i was so so happy that i don't even know how to thank Dr Godfather because he is really GREAT and i believe
    his GREAT and MIGHTY WORKS will continue to spread and i promise him that if he can help me out i will spread his GREAT WORKS.
    If you are there facing any problems any out all with Dr Godfather all things are possible just contact his Email Address godfatherlovespelltemple@gmail.com
    Or better still call his mobile number +2348152716685 and the challenges or marital problem or any kind of problems you have will be solve without any delay.
    NOTE that: Dr Godfather is above Trust and he has a Certificate Award.

    ReplyDelete
  41. Thank you priest idigun for what you've just done, for helping me getting my husband back who left me with my kid years ago, I thank you so much the great priest of owonikoko for bringing back my family and I am grateful and will always be, if you also need his help you can email him (idigunpriest@gmail.com) my name is Antonia Paker I am from the states I want to share my happiness with the general public of what priest idigun of indian has done for me in the last few weeks, I was in love with this guy called Maxwell, We were in love with each other until I traveled out for some month and we promised ourselves to be together forever, when I got back from my journey he was having another affair, when I went to see him, he told me to leave him that I should never come back again, and I love him so much that I can never let go off him, I told a friend of mine about it and she adviced me and recommended this man (idigun) for me, when I visited him at idigunpriest@gmail.com he only asked me to buy some items for sacrifies to help me get my Ex back and he actually did it and it worked and today I am happy with my family again, in case anyone is out there with the same problem or any kind, I advice he or she to contact this man today at idigunpriest@gmail.com and with what he did for me I believe he can also help you. Thanks once again Priest Idigun

    ReplyDelete
  42. Thank you priest idigun for what you've just done, for helping me getting my husband back who left me with my kid years ago, I thank you so much the great priest of owonikoko for bringing back my family and I am grateful and will always be, if you also need his help you can email him (idigunpriest@gmail.com) my name is Antonia Paker I am from the states I want to share my happiness with the general public of what priest idigun of indian has done for me in the last few weeks, I was in love with this guy called Maxwell, We were in love with each other until I traveled out for some month and we promised ourselves to be together forever, when I got back from my journey he was having another affair, when I went to see him, he told me to leave him that I should never come back again, and I love him so much that I can never let go off him, I told a friend of mine about it and she adviced me and recommended this man (idigun) for me, when I visited him at idigunpriest@gmail.com he only asked me to buy some items for sacrifies to help me get my Ex back and he actually did it and it worked and today I am happy with my family again, in case anyone is out there with the same problem or any kind, I advice he or she to contact this man today at idigunpriest@gmail.com and with what he did for me I believe he can also help you. Thanks once again Priest Idigun

    ReplyDelete
  43. Hello friends, an awesome and amazing testimony about a Great spell caster i really love to share. My name is john Scott from the United States. Getting my wife back is what i least expected and could never imagine. I and my wife have been married for five years and we have been living happily but all of a sudden she changed completely and turned away from me and i never knew what was going on, i tried to ask her but she refused to tell me what the problem is, and as time went on she sought for a divorce. I was so worried and confused, and i did all my possible best to get her back but it wasn't easy, i thought all hope was lost, and during my search for a way out, a friend of mine who had similar problem told me about a great spell caster called DR ALEX who helped him get back his wife also. I never believe in spell casting in my entire life or a magic because i never thought it will work but i tried to give this man a chance and to my greatest surprise, He cast a spell on me but today we are back together into a lovely home with three beautiful kids. We are happy together again and i am using this opportunity to tell anyone passing similar situation to contact him on idialulovepowerfullspelltemple@gmail.com and you will be the next to tell a new testimony.....

    ReplyDelete
  44. I and my boy friend as been separated for a long period, I cam across different spell caster and they were all unable to bring my lover back. I was so sad and almost gave up on him when i met a spell man called DR Atiti, who helped me get my lover back. Ever since then i have been so happy and couldn't believe it would happen. He also helped me with success spell, I have been living happily with my lover now and will be getting married soon. Here is his contact if you need his help. atitilovespell@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  45. My name is George Wacuka and I`m happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she did not love me anymore So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.{ohehenemenspelltemple001@gmail.com}. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my wife back the next two days what an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Within 48hours, So surprisingly, my wife who did not call me for the past seven months,gave me a call to inform me that she was coming back. So Amazing!! So that was how she came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and she apologized for her mistake,and for the pain she caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster . So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit the same email address {ohehenemenspelltemple001@gmail.com},if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. Thanks to Dr Ohehe for his help.

    ReplyDelete
  46. My Name is Amanda Nash from USA. My husband had been gone for about 7 months, I contacted Aluyama from other testifiers and within a few minutes of speaking with him, I realized that Dr OHEHE spell was the one person whom I could completely trust. I didn’t expect the spell would work so fast. Within 48 hours, my husband was back in my life. I want to express my warmest gratitude to Dr OHEHE spell Temple. I’ll never ever forget all the happiness you gave me. I’ll like to share his contact email:ohehenemenspelltemple001@gmail.com.

    ReplyDelete
  47. My name is George Wacuka and I`m happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she did not love me anymore So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.{ohehenemenspelltemple001@gmail.com}. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my wife back the next two days what an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Within 48hours, So surprisingly, my wife who did not call me for the past seven months,gave me a call to inform me that she was coming back. So Amazing!! So that was how she came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and she apologized for her mistake,and for the pain she caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster . So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit the same email address {ohehenemenspelltemple001@gmail.com},if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. Thanks to Dr Ohehe for his help.

    ReplyDelete
  48. i want to say a very big thank you to this great spell caster call alexanda for putting a big smile on my face by bringing my ex back to me and for making me pregrant which made my ex to leave me once again thank you alexanda incase you are out there you are having an issue with your ex or you want to get your ex back or you are having miscarriage or you want to get pregrant you can contact this great man for help through his email @ alexandathegreat@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  49. I have always wanted to be able to not live paycheck to paycheck or have any debt. I worked in accounting for about 20 years and was barely able to make ends meet. It seemed like any time I moved up in the company and received a raise, my living expenses would go up significantly and I was never able to get ahead. lottery spells. Then one day my best friend told me the truth about what he did when his wife left him. He had a love spell cast and she stopped the divorce proceedings and they got back together. When he told me this I asked who he used and he gave me their email address which is:shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com and I immediately contacted them for help. I saw that they offered different kinds of money spells to help win the lottery. I was immediately intrigued. I have always felt like I was going to win the lottery someday. I had the jackpot lottery spell cast and awaited my win. I was told to play the lottery each week and I did what I was told. I played the lottery each week anyways, so it did not change anything. Within about two weeks it happened. I won $100,000!! I could not believe it! It was not enough money to retire right away, but I invested it well and it has allowed me to go down to part time work and will help me retire much earlier. I am eternally grateful for finding their email address:shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  50. My name is Gladys Wholers, am from England, what a wonderful and a straight forward spell caster that has brought back joy and happiness into my life after i saw a post on how he helped a lady called Cassandra,i decided to contact him for help when i told this God sent man DR SHAKES SPEAR on how my lover left me for 2 years without calling nor texting me,When i shared this my sad experience with DR SHAKES SPEAR he said everything would be okay within 2 days i was like am i sure what this man is saying is real,So i decided to give a try and i what even surprised me the most at first i was also thinking he was a scam i taught he was like other spell caster who come online to add pain to peoples pain not knowing there feelings but to make money,But this great man DR SHAKES SPEAR is never like that his own is for good and make people to be happy with the one they love,Am just so happy,Even before the 3 days i just got a call from a man who has left me for 2 years saying he his sorry and that he wants me back to his life i was so happy,He invited me for a dinner which i meant him there and we bought talked and he said he wants to prove that he would never leave me for any other lady he engaged me and also make me had access to all his account am so happy all thanks goes to this great man DR SHAKES SPEAR a man who has brought back joy to my life,Please friends that needs help i would advice and swear that DR SHAKES SPEAR is the right man and not those fake ones who are online to make money and not to help here is DR SHAKES SPEAR "his private email: shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  51. My wife has been suffering from thyroid cancer which was confirmed to be stage four, the doctor told me there was little he could do since she wasn’t responding to treatment but a friend of mine came to our rescue by ordering this cannabis oil from Shakes Spear which he said has been helping some patient fight against cancer of various types so we decided to give it a chance, so far my wife is improving perfectly very well and presently she can walk around the house all by herself. I felt its necessary i let others who are suffering from this acute disease that once you have a good cannabis oil it can really give one a sound second chance of living. by
    chance if you happen to be in need of this cannabis oil you can contact Shakes Spear who supplied I and my wife with this email: shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com

    HE FIX THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS TO ALL
    ACROSS THE GLOBE ON:
    1. Getting your lover or husband back
    2. Spiritual bulletproof
    3. Training
    4. Money spell
    5. Long life spell
    6. Prosperity spell
    7. Protection spell
    8. Get a job spell
    9. Becoming a manager spell
    10. Get a huge loan without paying any fee spell
    11. Getting your scam money back
    12. Child spell
    13. Pregnancy spell
    14. Freedom spell
    15. Love spell
    16, vanishing spell
    17. Invisible human spell
    18. Success or pass spell
    19. Marriage spell
    20. Avenging spell
    21. Popularity spell
    22. Killing spell
    23. Cancer spell
    24. Supernatural power spell
    25. Madness spell
    26. Free house loan spell
    27. Production spell of films and movie
    28. Hiv/aids spell
    29. Tuberculosis spell
    30. Loose weight and body spell

    contact me of any of these problem as I got solution to all... MY EMAIL ADDRESS IS:shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  52. GREAT ILLUMINATI TEMPLE Of MONEY AND POWER,
    JOIN THE ILLUMINATI shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com

    Are you a business man or woman, political, musician, student,
    the you want to be rich, famous, powerful in life, join the Illuminati brotherhood cult today and get instant rich sum of. 1million dollars
    in a week, and a free home. any where you choose to live in this world and also get 10,000,000 U.S dollars monthly as a salary...

    BENEFITS GIVEN TO NEW MEMBERS WHO JOIN ILLUMINATI.

    A Cash Reward of USD $500,000 USD
    A New Sleek Dream CAR valued at USD $300,000 USD
    A Dream House bought in the country of your own choice
    One Month holiday (fully paid) to your dream tourist destination.
    One year Golf Membership package
    A V.I.P treatment in all Airports in the World
    A total Lifestyle change
    Access to Bohemian Grove
    Monthly payment of $1,000,000 USD into your bank account every month as a member
    One Month booked Appointment with Top 5 world Leaders and Top 5 Celebrities in the World.

    If you are interested e-mail info to:shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com for immediately initiation.New members registration is now open online

    ReplyDelete
  53. Do you want riches, power or you want to be famous in life this is an
    opportunity for you to join the Illuminati, get back to us with the
    following information bellow.
    Full name_________________
    Country______________________
    State of origin_________________
    Date of birth_____________________
    Sex_________________________________
    Address______________________________
    Phone_________________________________
    Email__________________________________
    Tell us little about yourself… No dirty game please, this is our mobile number contact us now if want to be famous
    EMAIL US: shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  54. My Name is Racheal Vivian, I wish to share my testimonies with the general public about what this man called Dr Shakes spell temple, on what he has just done for me , this man has just brought back my lost Ex husband with his great spell, I was married to this man called Mathew we were together for a long time and we love each other but when I was unable to give him a child after 2 years, he left me and told me he can’t continue anymore then I was now looking for ways to get him back until a friend of mine told me about this man. My friend gave his email to me and asked me to contact him but I didn't want to because I doubted at first but later reconsidered because it's so rear for a man to be as powerful like she said. So I contacted her through this email ( shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com) You won’t believe this when I contacted this man and told him my problems he cast the spell and my ex came back begging on his knees and asking me to forgive him. Not only that after a month I miss my monthly flow, when I went to my doctor, he confirm that I am pregnant so I told myself that I will testify to the whole wide world about the wonders of the powerful man if I give birth successfully. I am so happy today because I am a mother of a bouncing baby girl, thank you once again the great Dr Shakes Spear for what you have done for me, if you are out there passing through any of the following situations :
    (1) If you want your ex-back.
    (2) If you always have bad dreams.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women/men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial assistance.
    (9) Herbal care
    (10) if you are unable to satisfy your wife sex desire due to low err action.
    (11) If your menstruation refuse to come out the day it suppose or over flows.
    (12) If your work refuse to pay you, people owing you.
    (13) Solve a land issue and get it back.
    (14) Did your family Denny you of your right?
    (15) Do you have a low sperm count?
    (16) Are you contesting for any political position in your country?
    (17) Case solves E.T.C
    You are free to contact him at ( shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com ) ..... CONTACT HIM NOW FOR ALL ANSWERS TO ANY KIND OF PROBLEMS:shakesspear23@yahoo.com OR shakesspear23@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  55. My ex broke up with me 4-5months ago… We still talk & he says he still loves me. Idk if i should believe him. He hurt me real bad. I found out he was telling one of my friends that e loves her too. He changed alot. I love him alot even tho all he does is hurt me. I want him back but i just don't know how to get him back, not until I met a lady called Jesse who testify in the internet about a spell caster called PROPHET EGWONGA, helped her to get her husband back after their divorce, so I was convinced and decided to contact PROPHET EGWONGA via email; solutiontemple2@gmail.com He told me not to worry that my ex will come back to me in 48hours and surprisingly In less than
    48hours my ex came back begging for my forgiveness, thanks to PROPHET EGWONGA email; nbcplccareers259@gmail.com or call his mobile number +2347037477662

    ReplyDelete
  56. who ever is reading this testimony today should please celebrate with me
    and my family because it all started like a joke to some people and others
    said it was impossible. my name is Michael i live in Chicago i am happily
    married with two kids and a lovely wife something terrible happen to my
    family along the line, i lost my job and my wife packed out of my house
    because i was unable to take care of her and my kids at that particular
    time. i manage all through five years, no wife to support me to take care
    of the children and there come a faithful day that i will never forget in
    my life i met an old friend who i explain all my difficulties to, and he
    took me to a spell caster and and the name of the temple is called, DR
    Okundonor, i was assure that everything will be fine and my wife will come
    back to me after the wonderful work of Dr Okundonorgreatspell, my wife
    came back to me and today i am one of the richest man in my country. i
    advice you if you have any problem email him with this email:
    dr.okundonorgreatspell@gmail.com and you will have the best result. take
    things for granted and it will be take from you. i wish you all the best.

    Contact:( dr.okundonorgreatspell@gmail.com)
    , or call he with this phone number,
    +2348137828640

    ReplyDelete
  57. IS A TESTIMONY, I NEVER BELIEVED IN LOVE SPELLS UNTIL I MET THIS SPELL CASTER CALLED DR UNITY. HE IS REALLY POWERFUL AND COULD HELP CAST SPELLS TO BRING BACK ONE'S GONE,LOST,MISBEHAVING LOVER AND MAGIC MONEY SPELL OR SPELL FOR A GOOD JOB.I'M NOW HAPPY & A LIVING TESTIMONY COS THE WOMAN I HAD WANTED TO MARRY LEFT ME 3 WEEKS BEFORE OUR WEDDING AND MY LIFE WAS UPSIDE DOWN COS OUR RELATIONSHIP HAS BEEN ON FOR 3YEARS... I REALLY LOVED HER, BUT HER MOTHER WAS AGAINST US AND I HAD NO GOOD PAYING JOB. SO WHEN I MET THIS SPELL CASTER, I TOLD HIM WHAT HAPPENED AND EXPLAINED THE SITUATION OF THINGS TO HIM..AT FIRST I WAS UNDECIDED,SKEPTICAL AND DOUBTFUL, BUT I JUST GAVE IT A TRY. AND IN 48HOURS WHEN I WAS IN MY HOUSE IN USA,SHE CALLED ME BY HERSELF AND CAME TO ME, APOLOGIZING THAT EVERYTHING HAD BEEN SETTLED WITH HER MOM AND FAMILY AND SHE GOT A NEW JOB INTERVIEW SO WE SHOULD GET MARRIED..I DIDN'T BELIEVE IT COS THE SPELL CASTER ONLY ASKED FOR MY NAME AND MY GIRLFRIENDS NAME AND ALL I WANTED HIM TO DO... WELL WE ARE HAPPILY MARRIED NOW AND WE ARE EXPECTING OUR LITTLE KID,AND MY WIFE ALSO GOT THE NEW JOB AND OUR LIVES BECAME MUCH BETTER. IN CASE ANYONE NEEDS THE SPELL CASTER FOR SOME HELP, HIS EMAIL ADDRESS IS;unitylovetemple@gmail.com THANKS DR UNITY FOR YOUR GOOD WORK. ONCE AGAIN HIS EMAIL ADDRESS IS unitylovetemple@gmail.com YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAP +2348036251844

    ReplyDelete
  58. This is unbelievable!! I still cant believe how Dr Marvel brought my husband back to me in just 48 hours.. I actually did not believe that i would one day be writing this testimony. because I was the world’s biggest skeptic. I never believed in magic spells or anything like that, but I was told by a trustworthy source (a very close co-worker) that Dr Marvel is a very devoted, talented, and gifted spell caster, and after much cajole she got me to visit this website.It was one of the most excellent thing I have ever done in my whole life. My love life was in total mess after my husband dumped me for another woman. I had been through two divorces and was on the brink of a third. I just couldn't face another divorce, and I wanted to try harder to make our relationship work, but my husband didn't seem to care. So, with nothing but my pride to lose, I checked it out. I was flabbergasted. This man is for REAL. He did whatever magic he does, and lo and behold – no more than 48 hours later, I had my husband back! It was like a miracle! He suddenly wanted to go to marriage psychotherapy, and we’re doing very, very well right now. and now he has loved me more than ever..Thank you so much Dr Marvel for your Love and for reuniting my family back sir. Website: http://extremespellhome.webs.com and his Email extremespellhome@hotmail.com. You can as well call him with his mobile number +2348106985072.

    ReplyDelete
  59. I just want to share my experience with the entire world on how i got my husband back and saved my marriage… I was married for 5 years with 2 kids and i have been living happily with my family until things started getting ugly with me and my husband that leads us to fights and arguments almost every time… it got worse at a point that my husband filed for divorce… I tried my best to make him change his mind & stay with me cause i loved him with all my heart and didn't want to loose my husband but everything just didn't work out… He moved out of the house and still went ahead to file for divorce… I pleaded and tried everything but still nothing worked. The breakthrough came when someone introduced me to this wonderful, great spell caster called Dr Marvel from the drmarvelsolutiontemple@gmail.com. Who eventually helped me out… I have never been a fan of things like this but just decided to try it because I was desperate and left with no choice… He did the spell for me and things really work out as he promise and my husband have a change of mind and come back home to stay with me and the kids. And promise never to hurt me again. we are living happily as it was with the help of Dr Marvel. If you are in need of help you can contact Dr Marvel via email drmarvelsolutiontemple@gmail.com or call him on his mobile number +2348106985072. Or directly on his website http://extremespellhome.webs.com.

    ReplyDelete
  60. I just want to share my experience with the entire world on how i got my husband back and saved my marriage… I was married for 5 years with 2 kids and i have been living happily with my family until things started getting ugly with me and my husband that leads us to fights and arguments almost every time… it got worse at a point that my husband filed for divorce… I tried my best to make him change his mind & stay with me cause i loved him with all my heart and didn't want to loose my husband but everything just didn't work out… He moved out of the house and still went ahead to file for divorce… I pleaded and tried everything but still nothing worked. The breakthrough came when someone introduced me to this wonderful, great spell caster called Dr Marvel from the drmarvelsolutiontemple@gmail.com. Who eventually helped me out… I have never been a fan of things like this but just decided to try it because I was desperate and left with no choice… He did the spell for me and things really work out as he promise and my husband have a change of mind and come back home to stay with me and the kids. And promise never to hurt me again. we are living happily as it was with the help of Dr Marvel. If you are in need of help you can contact Dr Marvel via email drmarvelsolutiontemple@gmail.com or call him on his mobile number +2348106985072. Or directly on his website http://extremespellhome.webs.com.

    ReplyDelete
  61. THANKS TO DR BENEDICT FOR SOLVING MY PROBLEMS

    An amazing testimony on a spell caster who brought my wife back to me.. My name is Andy Sowers,i live in Australia,and I'm happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids.A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife.so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce.she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she didn't love me anymore.So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife.So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too.So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.{benedictsolutioncentre@gmail.com}. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my wife back the next day.What an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my wife who didn't call me for the past seven {7}months,gave me a call to inform me that she was coming back.So Amazing!! So that was how she came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and she apologized for her mistake,and for the pain she caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster DR benedict. So.
    So,if you are in a similar problem or any kind of problems you can also contact him via his email(benedictsolutioncentre@gmail.com}he is the solution to all your problems and predicaments in life.his email again is{benedictsolutioncentre@gmail.com}.

    HE ALSO SPECIALIZE IN THE THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS;

    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) If you want to be promoted in your office.
    (3) If you want a child.
    (4) If you want to be rich.
    (5) if you have any sickness like ( H I V/AIDS ),(CANCER) or any sickness.

    once again make sure you contact him if you have any problem he will help you. his email address is(benedictsolutioncentre@gmail.com}

    ReplyDelete


  62. THE GREAT POWERFUL SPELL CASTER THAT BRING BACK MY EX BOYFRIEND. I just want to say thank you Dr BABA for all you have done for me. He is back now. That very powerful spell caster STOP THE DIVORCE - and get my ex boyfriend back. My name is Annmarie Silvia , from ENGLAND. I never believed in love spells or magic until i met this spell caster once when i went for a business summit early this year. I meant a man who's name is Dr BABA he is really powerful and could help cast spells to bring back one's gone, lost, misbehaving lover and magic money spell or spell for a good job or luck spell .I'm now happy & a living testimony cos the man i had wanted to marry left me 3 weeks before our wedding and my life was upside down because our relationship has been on for 3years. I really loved him, but his mother was against us and he had no good paying job. So when i met this spell caster,i told him what happened and explained the situation of things to him. At first i was undecided, skeptical and doubtful, but i just gave it a try.And in 7 days when i returned to ENGLAND, my boyfriend(now husband) called me by himself and came to me apologizing that everything had been settled with his mother and family and he got a new job interview so we should get married. I didn't believe it cos the spell caster only asked for my name and my boyfriends name and all i wanted him to do. Well we are happily married now and we are expecting our little kid, and my husband also got the new job and our lives became much better.in case you are in any situation you can contact Dr BABA at his email baba100spelltemple@gmail.com thank to all your help Dr BABA i promise to share this Testimony to every body in the world wide baba100spelltemple@gmail.com



    '

    ReplyDelete
  63. I want to say my testimony to every body on this site because of what this great spell caster called Dr.Abolo have just done in my life. I really appreciate Dr.Abolo who helped me to bring back my fiance back to me after 3 years and 8 months of sepration, I now know that Dr.Abolo is the greatest spell caster on earth because he has just proven it to me this is like a dream to me i never thought i will be able to smile with my fiance by my side some day but right now my heart is filled with joy and i really appreciate what Dr.Abolo has done for me. If you need help in your love life you can send an email to Dr. Abolo at Abolospell@hotmail.com or you can reach Dr.Abolo through his number +2347052534659.

    ReplyDelete
  64. At least i can say to the world that i have benefited from the powers of Dr.Abolo because through his help my broken relationship has been restored back and filled with love within 48 hours that i contacted Dr.Abolo. When i contacted Dr.Abolo i was not having an idea of what to expect but after proper explanation and i followed the instruction that Dr.Abolo gave and my relationship was reveal back, i guess whosoever that is in need for relationship help or any having any other problem can contact DR.Abolo at any time through these detail: Abolospell@hotmail.com or call him at +2347052534659. thanks

    ReplyDelete
  65. i want to say a very big thank you to this great man called alexanderthe great for bringing back my ex lover who left me for almost a year incase you want your lover back or you are having any other problem you can contact this great man for help through the following ways email@alexandathegreat@yahoo.com or call him +2348164509114

    ReplyDelete
  66. Hello everyone i want to share a live testimony on how Dr. momodu was able to bring my husband back to me, myself and my husband were on a serious breakup, even before then we were always quarreling fighting and doing different ungodly act..
    My husband packed his things out of the house and we had to live in different area, despite all this i was looking for a way to re_unite with my husband, not until i met Dr. momodu the great spell caster who was able to bring my husband back home, Dr. momodu cast a love spell for me, and after some time i started seen results about the spell....
    Today my family is back again and we are happy living fine and healthy, with Dr. momodu all my dream came through in re_uniting my marriage, friends in case you need the help of Dr.momodu kindly mail him on( dr.momodulovespell@gmail.com ) Sir i will forever recommend you!!!

    ReplyDelete
  67. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  68. my name is Rachel Taylor . I've known Lucas for years, When we finally got together things were kind of weird so we broke up which was in February of 2012 In march of 2013 he and I recently got back together and we were together until Oct of 2014 which he told me he was not interested in relationship again During that time I changed completely, I wasn't eating,I was sleeping a lot, I wasn't talking to anybody, I cried a lot,I'm so depressed and stressed out that I'm scared I'm going to end up in the hospital because of all the stress and depression until one day i search online on getting love tips because I Love & care about him deeply and I just want us to be together as a couple again and I want us to last forever Google recommend me DR FASO greatfasolovecaster@gmail.com that he will solve my relationship problem then Dr FASO told me he will come back to me between 48hrs after he cast spell on him never believe it until my fiance called me on the phone and told me he want us to come back and live happy together forever , Am so happy now that DR FASO help me bring Lucas back to me. Thanks so much Dr FASO or call him on this number +2348138155913


    ReplyDelete
  69. Life is good when you have your love ones around you, I am saying this because when i had issues with my lover i never seen life as a good thing but thanks to Dr.Abolo whose details are +2347052534659 or via email: Abolospell@hotmail.com for helping me to cast a spell that brought my lover back to me within the space of 48 hours. I am not going to tell you more details about myself rather i will only advise those who are having issues in there relationship or marriages to contact Dr.Abolo through his details (Abolospell@hotmail.com) or call his at (+2347052534659)............. thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  70. i want to say a very big thank you to this great man called alexanderthe great for bringing back my ex lover who left me for almost a year incase you want your lover back or you are having any other problem you can contact this great man for help through the following ways email@alexandathegreat@yahoo.com or call him +2348164509114

    ReplyDelete
  71. Am Albert Tanya from United State I was heartbroken that my boyfriend decided to leave the relationship, so I had the Retrieve A Lover spell cast. with Dr Ekpiku Within a week of the spell casting, he called "just to talk." After some pleasant talks and catching up, he asked to see me again. I felt he had started to turn around. I decided to give him a chance just to see. now we are happily married and He is absolutely crazy about me, i thank Dr Ekpiku for bringing back my ex, if you need his help you can contact him via email:Ekpikuspelltemple@live.com

    ReplyDelete
  72. My name is clara and i have always been aware that spells work out but i never found a true spell caster as i have been scammed a couple of times. My husband whom i have been married to for 3 years left me just after i became pregnant and there was no one to take care of me and my unborn child this condition made me search for genuine solutuion online until i met DR ZADSON of eduduzadsontemple@yahoo.com. This DR promised to bring back my husband and in 72 hours. At first i thought he was like others i have met until suddenly the third day after Dr ZADSON had told me to await results my husband came to me in the hospital for my anti-natal care and stood right beside my begging for forgiveness and a chance to make amends. Tears of joy burst out of me and words are still not enough to thank this great DR. Just contact him via eduduzadsontemple@yahoo.com or call +2347050269626 for whatever challenge you may be facing its absolutely amazing.

    ReplyDelete
  73. An amazing testimony on a spell caster who brought my husband back to me.. My name is Olivia Phimzile,i live in Florida,USA,and I'm happily married to a lovely and caring husband ,with two kids.A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my husband .so terrible that he took the case to court for a divorce.he said that he never wanted to stay with me again,and that he didn't love me anymore.So he packed out of the house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get him back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and he confirmed it that he has made his decision,and he never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my husband .So i explained every thing to him,so he told me that the only way i can get my husband back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for him too.So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow his advice. Then he gave me the email address of the spell caster whom he visited.{supremetemple@hotmail.com}. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address he gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my husband back the next day.What an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my husband who didn't call me for the past seven {7}months,gave me a call to inform me that he was coming back.So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster. So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit the same email supremetemple@hotmail.com,if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. So thanks to the Dr PAPA for bringing back my husband ,and brought great joy to my family once again. {supremetemple@hotmail.com}, or call +27799527702 Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  74. Dr Malawi is like a father to the fatherless.. i never believed these will really make a change in my marriage, and i never have it in my thought that i could ever been with my husband Mr Devis after divorcing and ending our 33 years marriage.... My life was upset i never knew where to start from when my husband broke up with me..... My name is Tanisha Devis from Poland but got married and live in Chicago USA, spellofsolutiontemple@yahoo.com is the right email address to contact for an urgent help in getting your lover back.... My husband and I have been together for 33 years before he divorced me and i was so upset because i thought i have lost my marriage forever... i did all i could to please for my husband to bring me back home but all to be in vain.. i had to travel away from my state because i was not having anywhere to stay because my home was not conducive for me to stay because my husband want me out of the house, i travel to a friend of mine in California, one night, when i was searching on a good spell caster results that help in bringing back lost lover's and husband's, i found an interesting story that was shared by Santana Valdez From Texas Huston, about a good spell caster called Dr Malawi,and how he helped her in getting her husband back home, and i decided to put a try in contacting him... he replied me back.. i thought at first these was just normal and he told me that i was going to get back my husband after a period of 28 hours still doubted him.... But today as i am sharing these good news is for me to express my experience to all the whole universe that these is a good spell caster that helps in bringing back lost lovers and he is (spellofsolutiontemple@yahoo.com) I am happily with my husband and my 3 kids, TARRY, WENDY, JEFF... Great Malawi i thank you for helping me to get my family back.... his email address is (spellofsolutiontemple@yahoo.com)

    ReplyDelete
  75. My name is clara and i have always been aware that spells work out but i never found a true spell caster as i have been scammed a couple of times. My husband whom i have been married to for 3 years left me just after i became pregnant and there was no one to take care of me and my unborn child this condition made me search for genuine solutuion online until i met DR ZADSON of eduduzadsontemple@yahoo.com. This DR promised to bring back my husband and in 72 hours. At first i thought he was like others i have met until suddenly the third day after Dr ZADSON had told me to await results my husband came to me in the hospital for my anti-natal care and stood right beside my begging for forgiveness and a chance to make amends. Tears of joy burst out of me and words are still not enough to thank this great DR. Just contact him via eduduzadsontemple@yahoo.com or call +2347050269626 for whatever challenge you may be facing its absolutely amazing.

    ReplyDelete
  76. My name is CLIFFORD MARY from USA .I am here to give testimony on how I got my husband back. My husband left me for no reason 3 years ago. He moved in with another woman, I felt like killing myself, my life became very bitter and sorrowful. Then 1 day, a friend of mine told me about a great spell caster that is very good and, he said he gave him some lucky numbers that he played in a lottery and he won. I didn't believe it because I've worked with so many of them and it didn't work. He begged me further so I decided to try this great spell caster called DR OZIL. I still didn't believe. I used the spell he gave me and the next day I received a call from my darling husband Thomas last month. He apologized and came back to me. He even gave me 10,000USD as a means of compensating me. I'm very happy now. Thank you DR OZIL, You can reach him via email:(drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com)
    He can solve any problem like,
    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) you need a divorce in your relationship.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women & men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband & wife to be yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial stance.
    (9) He can make you pregnancy.
    (10) He can cure you from any diseases.
    contact: drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  77. My name is CLIFFORD MARY from USA .I am here to give testimony on how I got my husband back. My husband left me for no reason 3 years ago. He moved in with another woman, I felt like killing myself, my life became very bitter and sorrowful. Then 1 day, a friend of mine told me about a great spell caster that is very good and, he said he gave him some lucky numbers that he played in a lottery and he won. I didn't believe it because I've worked with so many of them and it didn't work. He begged me further so I decided to try this great spell caster called DR OZIL. I still didn't believe. I used the spell he gave me and the next day I received a call from my darling husband Thomas last month. He apologized and came back to me. He even gave me 10,000USD as a means of compensating me. I'm very happy now. Thank you DR OZIL, You can reach him via email:(drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com)
    He can solve any problem like,
    (1) If you want your ex back.
    (2) you need a divorce in your relationship.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women & men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband & wife to be yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial stance.
    (9) He can make you pregnancy.
    (10) He can cure you from any diseases.
    contact: drozilsolutionhome@yahoo.com or drozilsolutionhome@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete

  78. Need a spell caster?then think of DR,OBEYED he is real reliable and he does what he promise you.I know all this because he helped with my marriage problem.For security reason i will not live my name here but i can tell you all he did to help me.Me and my family live in the US military base here in America,my wife is a solider and i love it that she is and i support.But being a solider means she is half my wife and fully the U.S army.before her three tour we were so in love and we had a kid son who we both love him.It all changed after her two tour in Iraq and Afghanistan,i noticed the distance her second tour she stopped call at first i thought maybe she was part of an accident but i found out that she was OK in Afghanistan.She explained that she always on patrol.It got ugly on the third. I guess in the last two tours she found herself a new lover and then totally forgetting me and our boy.I can not say i did not notice because she always has to be some where instead of with me,coming up with some silly excuse not to be with me that is ( have sex ) and her entire behavior told me all i needed to know. i did my research and i had a hint that it was her squad lieutenant.I had know evidence so a could not take the matter to any body.It killed me to seeing this happen i was going suicidal.What hurt me the most was she going home knowing that i suspect she infidelity,she kept lying to me over and over again.The power of positive thinking helped me a lot.I thought that maybe i can find in the help on the internet with the people who had being in the same problem with him.I found a lot of ways but nor worked except DR,OBEYED spell.At that time five month ago i was so confused that i could do anything to get my wife back so i contacted DR,OBEYED with his email address i saw in some comment on the internet at oballnaspiritualtemple@mail.co m.I laid down my problem to him and told him the entire story and he even confirmed my hint was right, how he did i do not know but he was right because my wife told me later after the spell was made effective. DR,OBEYED cast a spell on them both do not know what he did but it seem he made them both forget they ever crossed path romantically speaking like they never know each other expect there official relationship that is squad leader and solider.I owe my life to DR,OBEYED what he did saved my marriage.I can tell you this because i have tried and it worked for me.Your case also have a solution with DR,OEYED contact him with his email: drobeyedspellcaster@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  79. i have read testimonies about this great spell caster called Dr. EBOEHI how he helped people to bring their lover back. so i decide to give him a try, i am here today to give my own testimony on how this great man brought my ex back within 48 hours for just to contact him. this girl has broke up with me over 6 weeks but she came back just within 48 hours that Dr EBOEHI said he will make her come back to me. just contact this man and he will bring your ex back here is his email address mail. (supernaturalspelltemple@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete

  80. Today has being the most happiest day of my life after 1 year of sadness and sorrow without being with the one i love, i tried all my possible best to make sure i make my lover happy but it never seems to work out well, it was like am doing everything in vain but all thanks to Dr.uzoya for coming to change all my worries and sadness to Joy. i knew the great man when i read some wonderful reviews about Dr.uzoya how he has helped a lots of people on there relationship problem i was reading a magazine which then i saw great testimonies as well which then i decided not to waste time.he told me not to worry he assures me that within 48 hours everything would be sorted out i believed Dr.uzoya so much because i believe he can't fail me and i sent him all my details. Truly Dr.uzoya never failed me,my husband who left me for good a year come back to me. My husband and i have been living contentedly since this spell caster reunited us together with his love spells. Thank you so so so much Dr.uzoya for your powerful spells. expressions are not sufficient to say thank you. here is his email adddress; driraborspellcaster@gmail.com OR his miobel phone +2348151098492

    ReplyDelete
  81. Hello everyone this really worked and i am proud to testify of it. i saw a post on how a lady got her man back and i decided to try this Dr that helped her because my relationship was crashing. although i never believed in spiritual work i reluctantly tried him because i was desperate but to my greatest surprise Dr Zadson helped me and my relationship is now perfect just as he promised my man now treats me like a queen even when he had told me before he doesn't love me anymore. well, i can not say much but if you are passing through difficulties in your relationship try him here is his email:eduduzadsontemple@yahoo.com of a truth he really helped again his email:eduduzadsontemple@yahoo.com or call +2347050269626

    ReplyDelete
  82. I'm now happy happy and happy, my name is Mary from Canada I believe Dr Ogudugu now, After so many comments on how Dr Ogudugu helped a lot of people got back their Ex, Jobs and properties, i contacted him and tell my story of how a lady broke my relationship, i have Been married for five years and with two kids, suddenly my Husband moved out and told me never to contact him again, i was so heart broken, depressed and sad, after all the story, Dr Ogudugu told me to put my mind at rest and told me that all my problems will be solved within two days , i was still hoping until Dr Ogudugu called me again for my husbands picture and told me, i will have to get some items and i did all he asked me, on Sunday morning David came home by himself and knelt down to beg me, weeping bitterly and asked for forgiveness, i did forgive him and i told Dr Ogudugu about everything and he said all he wants from me is to share the good news with the world so people out there will know, here is a prove that real casters are still online, for any kind of problems that need solutions, contact greatogudugu@gmail.com he is the right person that can help you.

    ReplyDelete
  83. How I Get My Husband Back With The Help Of Dr Brave

    Hello everyone, My name is Morgan Jackson, a citizen of USA; am 42 years of age..we got married for more than 11 years and have gotten two kids. thing were going well with us and we are always happy. until one day my husband started to behave in a way i could not understand, i was very confused by the way he treat me and the kids. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was mad and also frustrated do not know what to do,i was sick for more than 2 weeks because of the divorce. i love him so much he was everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told my sister and she told me to contact a spell caster, i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing. i just want to try if something will come out of it. i contacted Dr Brave for the return of my husband to me, they told me that my husband have been taken by another woman, that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want us to divorce. then they told me that they have to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and the kids, they casted the spell and after 1 week my husband called me and he told me that i should forgive him, he started to apologize on phone and said that he still live me that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that he Dr Brave casted on him that make him come back to me today,me and my family are now happy again today. thank you Dr Brave for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. i want you my friends who are passing through all this kind of love problem of getting back their husband, wife , or ex boyfriend and girlfriend to contact Dr Brave ,if you need his help you can contact him through his private mail: bravespellcaster@gmail.com or you can contact him through his website http://enchantedscents.tripod.com/lovespell/ and you will see that your problem will be solved without any delay.

    ReplyDelete
  84. An amazing testimony on a spell caster who brought my wife back to me.. My name is Robert mark,I live in USA,and I'm happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids.A very big problem occurred in my family five months ago,between me and my wife. so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce.she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she didn't love me anymore.So she packed out of my house and made me and the kids go through severe pain. I tried all my possible best to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife.So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too.So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.{ izzakpadoosoluctionhome@outlook.com }. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my wife back the next two days.What an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. after two days, So surprisingly, my wife who didn't call me for the past five {5} months,gave me a call to inform me that she was coming back.So Amazing!! So that was how she came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and she apologized for her mistake,and for the pain she caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster. So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit the same website, if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. So thanks to the great izzakpa doo for bringing back my wife,and brought great joy to my family once again.) Thanks...CAN NEVER STOP TALKING ABOUT YOU SIR, HIS EMAIL ADDRESS IS: { izzakpadoosoluctionhome@outlook.com }

    ReplyDelete
  85. My name is Andrea Rose, am from England, what a wonderful and a straight forward spell caster that has brought back joy and happiness into my life after i saw a post on how he helped a lady called Cassandra,i decided to contact him for help when i told this God sent man Dr odinaka on how my lover left me for 2 years without calling nor texting me,When i shared this my sad experience with Dr odinaka he said everything would be okay within 2 days i was like am i sure what this man is saying is real,So i decided to give a try and i what even surprised me the most at first i was also thinking he was a scam i taught he was like other spell caster who come online to add pain to peoples pain not knowing there feelings but to make money,But this great man Dr odinaka is never like that his own is for good and make people to be happy with the one they love,Am just so happy,Even before the 3 days i just got a call from a man who has left me for 2 years saying he his sorry and that he wants me back to his life i was so happy,He invited me for a dinner which i meant him there and we bought talked and he said he wants to prove that he would never leave me for any other lady he engaged me and also make me had access to all his account am so happy all thanks goes to this great man Dr odinaka a man who has brought back joy to my life,Please friends that needs help i would advice and swear that Dr odinaka is the right man and not those fake ones who are online to make money and not to help here is Dr odinaka "his private email:odinakaspiritualtemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  86. “I feel the same way as any other woman with heartbreak and What would I have done if not for DR. OSAUYI, my name is Mrs. Robin Wendy, I am 38. years old and I have a son. Unfortunately almost a year ago his father broke up with me because of a mistake I made and I just really want.him back. He is the best thing that has ever happened to me and I want.our family to be complete again, I want to spend the rest of my life with him. I read online that he helped a girl in this situation and I contacted him for help. I grew up with my parents divorced and I don't want that for my son and I miss my husband so much and just want our family to be whole again I want the love of my life back and I can honestly say that because he is the only man I have ever truly loved with all my heart. So I seek help from (Osauyilovespell@outlook.com) and he responded to me and he cast a love spell for me which I use in getting back my husband and I am happy and grateful to him for helping me and I want you all to also have the opportunity I had also, OSAUYILOVESPELL@OUTLOOK.COM is the only through help I have ever known. Good luck” you can call the great man on +2347064294395 his ready to help you with your problem

    ReplyDelete
  87. “I feel the same way as any other woman with heartbreak and What would I have done if not for DR. OSAUYI, my name is Mrs. Robin Wendy, I am 38. years old and I have a son. Unfortunately almost a year ago his father broke up with me because of a mistake I made and I just really want.him back. He is the best thing that has ever happened to me and I want.our family to be complete again, I want to spend the rest of my life with him. I read online that he helped a girl in this situation and I contacted him for help. I grew up with my parents divorced and I don't want that for my son and I miss my husband so much and just want our family to be whole again I want the love of my life back and I can honestly say that because he is the only man I have ever truly loved with all my heart. So I seek help from (Osauyilovespell@outlook.com) and he responded to me and he cast a love spell for me which I use in getting back my husband and I am happy and grateful to him for helping me and I want you all to also have the opportunity I had also, OSAUYILOVESPELL@OUTLOOK.COM is the only through help I have ever known. Good luck” you can call the great man on +2347064294395 his ready to help you with your problem ....

    ReplyDelete

Unfortunately because of spam with embedded links (which then flag up warnings about the whole site on some browsers), I have to personally moderate all comments. As a result, your comment may not appear for some time.